Minimize Snow and Ice Overview

A tenth of Earth’s land surface is permanently occupied by ice sheets or glaciers, but the domain of the cryosphere – that part of the world where snow and ice can form – extends three times further still.

The cryosphere is an important regulator of global climate, its bright albedo reflecting sunlight back to space and its presence influencing regional weather and global ocean currents. Some 77% of the globes freshwater are bound up within the ice – but the cryosphere appears disproportionately sensitive to the effects of global warming.

Imaging radar systems like those of ERS and Envisat pierce through clouds or seasonal darkness to chart ice extent, possessing sensitivity to different ice types – from kilometers - thick ice sheets to new-born floating ‘pancake’ ice – supplemented by optical observations.

Radar altimeters gather data on changing ice height and mass: in 2009 ESA launched CryoSat-2 as the first altimetry mission specifically designed to accurately measure the thickness of sea ice and land ice margins.

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Sharing Earth observation satellite data to help understand our planet

01 December 2016

Since the launch of the first Earth-observing satellites in the 1970s, numerous missions from international space organisations have taken to the sky. Today, decades of data are helping scientists to build a better picture of changes to our planet.

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Arctic freeze slows down

30 November 2016

ESA's CryoSat satellite has found that the Arctic has one of the lowest volumes of sea ice of any November, matching record lows in 2011 and 2012. Early winter growth of ice in the Arctic has been about 10% lower than usual.

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Frozen Ground

The enormous permafrost areas of the world show seasonal change which has impact on not only vegetation and hydrological cycles, but also on the planning and safety of huge gas and oil pipelines which traverse these areas.

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Sea Ice

Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes, whether along coasts or to the sea floor (fast ice) or floating on the surface (drift ice) or packed together (pack ice). The most important areas of pack ice are the polar ice packs. Because of vast amounts of water added to or removed from the oceans and atmosphere, the behavior of polar ice packs have a significant impact of the global changes in climate.

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Snow & Ice

The study of snow and ice is aimed at monitoring the environmental conditions of some of the most inaccessible parts of the world. This includes the study of animal migration, ice mass balance, snowpack conditions, and monitoring of iceberg movement for ship routing.

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