FRM-BOUSSOLE: Buoy for the acquisition of long-term optical time series



Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) are a suite of independent, fully characterized, and traceable ground measurements that follow the guidelines outlined by the GEO/CEOS Quality Assurance framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO). These FRM provide the maximum Return On Investment (ROI) for a satellite mission by delivering, to users, the required confidence in data products, in the form of independent validation results and satellite measurement uncertainty estimation, over the entire end-to-end duration of a satellite mission. Within this context, the SPPA team manages a series of projects targeting the validation of ESA altimetry, atmosphere, land, and ocean products.

The purpose of the BOUSSOLE project was to establish a time series of optical properties in oceanic waters, in support to bio-optics research, to calibration of ocean color satellite observations, and to validation of the products derived from these observations.

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