Minimize Level 0

ERS-2 L0 data products (SAR.RAW) consist of the SAR telemetry data corresponding to 16 seconds of data collection; it also contains all required auxiliary data for SAR processing. RAW data are provided in two formats (CEOS product specificationENVISAT product specification).

Minimize Performance and Quality

The performance of SAR was monitored though a number of activities carried out during ERS-2 lifetime:

Minimize SAR Quality Control Products Parameter Plots (telemetry)

The monitoring of the ERS-SAR High Rate (HR) Fast Delivery (FD) data products was carried out by the Product Control Service (PCS-ESRIN-ESA, Rome), since the beginning of the ERS missions (1991 for ERS-1 and 1995 for ERS-2). Due to the non-Y2K (Year 2000) compliance of the Fast Delivery processor, installed at the ESA ground stations, an alternative has been choosen for the monitoring of the SAR HR data processing. For each HR (off-line) data products generated at the Italian Processing and Archiving Facility (I-PAF, Matera), an extract of the telemetry was formatted as an ascii file and transfered via ftp to the PCS. The data was then ingested onto a database and an URL allowed any user to interact with its content. These new data products, known as Quality Control Products also referred as QCP, substituted the previous UIND (calibration pulses & noise samples) and UIC (Replica pulses) data products generated by the "old" SAR FD processor.


Range Compression dfgdafgdafg   dfg dfg sdf g Replica Pulse
Calibration Pulse    
Noise Sample    


Nb Pulses/Samples and Indexes    
Product Acquisition Information    

Minimize SAR Cyclic Reports - Description

The available reports summarise the results of the investigations made for the ERS-2 SAR instrument on cycle basis. The analysis has been made using data for both High-Rate Image data (RAW, IMP, IMG, IMS & IMM products), Low-Rate Wave data (UWA and UWAND) and internal calibration QCP products.

The cyclic reports give information on:

  • Instrument Status (unavailabilities, disclaimers & operations)
  • Internal calibration for Image and Wave modes
  • Image Quality
  • Radiometric stability
  • Noise equivalent radar cross-section
  • Doppler monitoring
  • Auxiliary Files 
Minimize SAR Cyclic Reports

Minimize Yaw Error Angle Monitoring - Weekly Reports - Description

Attitude pointing is derived from wave data (imagette) using the Doppler frequency at near range and its variation rate from near range to far range. The process is not straightforward due to the nature of wave data and the limitation of the wave mode processor. In particular the Doppler frequencies estimated by the SAR wave processor and annotated in the fast delivery UWA products, are wrapped in the base band (+/- PRF/2) and they have to be unwrapped in order to obtain the true frequencies values. In nominal 3 gyro operations the Doppler frequencies stay in the baseband for almost the entire orbit and therefore there is no more that 1 PRF error between the wrapped Doppler and the corrected unwrapped Doppler. For the new AOCS configuration (gyro-less) the error can be up to 10 PRF and it is therefore critical to unwrap the Doppler. A simple unwrapping algorithm is applied in "near real time" as soon as UWA data are received in PCS. The algorithm assumes as reference baseband the one when the data become available and unwraps the Doppler frequency taking this baseband as reference. Discontinuities are expected for large data gaps (e.g. due to SAR in image mode or AMI instrument switch-off).

After the unwrapping the yaw angle is computed along the orbit and yaw information (mainly the mean yaw and standard deviation per orbit) are sent to ESOC to re-compute and uplink on satellite new AOCS parameters.

Yaw error angle is also estimated by analysing the Scatterometer raw data. In particular from the Doppler frequency shift of the received echo is possible to retrieve the yaw error angle. That processing is not performed in "near real time" because it needs raw Scatterometer data. Those data are sent from Kiruna ground station to PCS via a satellite link and the fast delivery constraints is not always complied.

One advantage to use Scatterometer data is that the Doppler frequency shift of the echo can be estimated without ambiguity. That Doppler cannot be compared directly with the SAR wave Doppler due to different geometry during the acquisition but it is possible to compare the retrieved yaw angle.

For that reason Scatterometer data are used to assess the quality of the yaw information retrieved by wave processing.


AMI               Active Microwave Instrument
AOCS           Attitude On-board Control System
PCS              Product Control Service
PRF              Pulse Repetition Frequency
SAR              Synthetic Aperture Radar
UWA             Fast Delivery product: AMI wave
Minimize Yaw Weekly Reports

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