Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) are a suite of independent, fully characterized, and traceable ground measurements that follow the guidelines outlined by the GEO/CEOS Quality Assurance framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO). These FRM provide the maximum Return On Investment (ROI) for a satellite mission by delivering, to users, the required confidence in data products, in the form of independent validation results and satellite measurement uncertainty estimation, over the entire end-to-end duration of a satellite mission. Within this context, the SPPA team manages a series of projects targeting the validation of ESA altimetry, atmosphere, land, and ocean products.
|FRM4SOC: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Satellite Ocean Colour||External link|
|FRM4ALT: Fiducial Reference Measurements for altimetry||External link|
|FRM-BOUSSOLE: Buoy for the acquisition of long-term optical time series||External link|
|FRM4DOAS: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based DOAS Air-Quality Observations||External link|
|FRM4GHG: Reference Measurements for Ground-Based FTIR Greenhouse Gas Observations||External link|
FRM4STS: Fiducial Reference Measurements for validation of Surface Temperatures from Satellites
|Pandonia FRM: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based Direct-Sun Air-Quality Observations||External link|