Minimize Fiducial Reference Measurements: FRM

Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) are a suite of independent, fully characterized, and traceable ground measurements that follow the guidelines outlined by the GEO/CEOS Quality Assurance framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO). These FRM provide the maximum Return On Investment (ROI) for a satellite mission by delivering, to users, the required confidence in data products, in the form of independent validation results and satellite measurement uncertainty estimation, over the entire end-to-end duration of a satellite mission. Within this context, the SPPA team manages a series of projects targeting the validation of ESA altimetry, atmosphere, land, and ocean products.

FRM4VEG: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Vegetation External link
FRM4SOC: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Satellite Ocean Colour External link
FRM4ALT: Fiducial Reference Measurements for altimetry External link
FRM-BOUSSOLE: Buoy for the acquisition of long-term optical time series External link
FRM4DOAS: Fiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based DOAS Air-Quality Observations External link
FRM4GHG: Reference Measurements for Ground-Based FTIR Greenhouse Gas Observations  External link

FRM4STS: Fiducial Reference Measurements for validation of Surface Temperatures from Satellites

External link
Pandonia FRMFiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based Direct-Sun Air-Quality Observations External link