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20. Geometric effects for image interpretation

ERS Based upon the previous considerations on SAR image geometry, the following remarks can be formulated in order to assist the interpreter:

- for regions of low relief, larger incidence angles give a slight enhancement to topographic features. So does very small incidence angles.
- for regions of high relief, layover is minimised and shadowing exaggerated by larger incidence angles. Smaller incidence angles are preferable to avoid shadowing.
- intermediate incidence angles correspond to low relief distortion and good detection of land (but not water) features.
- small incidence angles are necessary to give acceptable levels of backscattering from ocean surfaces.
- planimetric applications necessitate the use of ground range data, which usually requires use of digital elevation data and image transformation.