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GLOSSARY

Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

 

A

AATSR
Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer; this instrument is in fact the same design as the ATSR-2 flying on ERS-2. It has four infrared channels and three visible channels. The swath, centered on the subsatellite ground track, is imaged under two different incidence angles in both spectral bands.
ACF
Auto-Correlation Function
A/D
Analogue / Digital
ADC
Analogue / Digital Converter
ADEN
ALOS Data European Node
ADEOS
Advanced Earth Observation Satellite - ADEOS website
The ADEOS satellites prime objectives were environmental research. ADEOS-1 was operational from 1996-1997. ADEOS-2 was operational from 2002-2003.
ADS
Annotation Data Set
ADSR
Annotation Data Set Record
ALOS
Advanced Land Observing Satellite - ALOS website
The ALOS mission's objectives are general Earth observation and the data is used for cartography, and environmental and disaster monitoring. ALOS was operational from 2006-2011. Two further satellites, ALOS-2 and 3, are planned.
AMF
Air Mass Factor; a parameter which allows the transformation from slant column densities to cloumn densities along the line of sight.
AMI
Active Microwave Instrument, a part of ERS-1 and ERS-2 payload, incorporating image (SAR), wind (scatterometer), and wave (imagette) modes.
ANC
Ascending Node Crossing, the point in the orbit path of a satellite, where the orbit crosses the equator and the spacecraft moves from South to North.
AO
Announcement of Opportunity; the call for proposals to utilize a satellite mission. Utilization can mean data exploitation but also the opportunity to provide payloads.
AOCS
Attitude and Orbit Control; an important and complex subsystem of the satellite, providing measurement of the attitude in nominal and anomalous situations, and a range of actuators to modify attitude and attitude rates. It also provides the thrusters needed for orbit control and maintenance.
AOI
Announcement of Opportunity Instrument. These instruments are developed independently of ESA, under national funding. They have been selected following an Announcement of Opportunity, one of the selection criteria being the extent to which the AOI would enhance the overall measurement system.
ASAR
Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar
ASI
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana - ASI website
ASI is the Italian Space Agency
ASPS
Advanced Scatterometer Processing System
Astrium
European space company. ESA partners for the Envisat satellite, see; Astrium website
ATBD
Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document
ATSR
Along Track Scanning Radiometer
AUIG
AlOS User Interface Gateway
Aura OMI
Aura OMI website - Aura is a NASA mission that aims to study chemistry in the Earth's atmosphere. The OMI instrument is carried aboard the satellite and is a nadir-viewing UV/VIS imaging spectrograph that measures solar radiation backscattered by the Earth's atmosphere.
AVHRR
Advanced Very High Resloution Radiometer
B

BIH
Bureau International de l'Heure
BNSC
British National Space Centre - British governmental organisation that coordinated space activities in the United Kingdom. It was replaced on 01 April 2010 by the UK Space Agency.
BRDF
Solid State Recorder
BRM
Background Regional Mission
BUFR
Binary Universal Form (data format)

C

CAST
Chinese Academy of Space Technology - CAST website
CAST is a Chinese space agency that coordinates the national Chinese Space Programme.
CBERS
China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite - CBERS website
This satellite series is a cooperative program between CAST and INPE, to primarily provide China and Brazil with remote sensing imagery. The first three satellites (1, 2, and 2B) have been retired, but two further satellites are planned for the future.
CCD
Charge Coupled Device, an integrating optical detector in the near infrared, visible and ultraviolet region
CCT
Computer Compatible Tape
CEOS
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites - CEOS website
CEOS is an international body that coordinates civil space-borne Earth observation
CFRP
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic, a very stiff, and lightweight material with negligible thermal expansion coefficient
CIS
Conventional Inertial System
CNES
Centre National d'√Čtudes Spatiales - CNES website
CNES is the French national space agency
COSMO-SkyMed
Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation - COSMO-SkyMed website
COSMO-SkyMed is a constellation of four satellites owned by ASI, aimed at providing Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery for both Civil and Military users.
CryoSat
Ice (Cryo) Satellite - CryoSat website
CryoSat is designed to study ice in the polar regions, with a goal of understanding the role of ice in Earth's system. The first CryoSat satellite failed to reach orbit and was lost. CryoSat-2 has been operational since April 2010.
CSA
Canadian Space Agency - CSA website
CSA is the national space agency of Canada
CTS
Conventional Terrestrial System
CZCS
Coastal Zone Colour Scanner
D

DBU
Digital Bus Unit, which provides the electrical interface between the signals on the OBDH bus and terminal equipment such as ICU's.
DDS
Data Dissemination System
Deimos-1
Deimos-1 website - Deimos-1 is an Earth Observation satellite owned by Deimos Imaging, and offers imagery for commercial applications as well as disaster monitoring. The satellite is part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation and has been operational since 2009.
DEM
Digital Elevation Model
DESCW
Display Earth remote sensing Swath Coverage for Windows
DMC
Disaster Monitoring Constellation - DMC website
The Disaster Monitoring Constellation is a series of two satellite constellations, as part of an international effort to monitor and provide observational support in the event of natural disasters. Three of the satellites in the First Generation constellation are currently operational, with the remaining two retired. The four satellites in the Second Generation constellation are all currently operational.
DMCII
Disaster Monitoring Constellation Imaging International - DMCii website
DMCii is a UK company which coordinates the Disaster Monitoring Constellation services
DMI
DEIMOS Imaging - DEIMOS website
DEIMOS Imaging is a Spanish aerospace company which owns and operates DEIMOS-1, an Earth Observation satellite
Dobson units
Dobson Units (DU) are used to measure atmospheric trace gases such as ozone. If you took all the molecules of ozone from a column of air, and compressed these molecules to the base of the column itself at STP (0oC and 1 atm), they would form a slab. One DU is defined to be 0.01 mm thickness of this slab. In the case of ozone, 1 DU corresponds to 2.69x1016 molecules per square centimeter of column base. See an example.
DORIS
Envisat Instrument for Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite
DSB
DSR
Data Set Record
DUE
Data User Element
DVB
Digital Video Broadcasting
E

ECMWF
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - ECMWF website
The ECMWF is a European inter-governmental organisation that produces weather forecasts from Earth observation and remote sensing data.
EDI
ESA Developed Instrument. Such instruments are part of the Envisat industrial contract and are developed under full ESA responsibility
EM
Engineering Model
EMC
Electro-Magnetic compatibility
ENVISAT
ENVIronment SATellite - Envisat website
Envisat is an ESA environmental satellite that observes the atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice, with the goal of aiding environmental studies and climate change. Due to an anomoly on 08 April 2012 the mission was declared over on May 09 2012.
EO
Earth Observation
EOHelp
ESA's Earth Observation Help and Order Desk
EOLi
Earth Observation Link (catalogue)
EOLi-SA
EOLi Stand Alone
EOMD
Earth Observation Market Development
EOPI
Earth Observation Principal Investigator (web portal)
ERS
European Remote Sensing Satellite - ERS website
The two ERS satellites, owned by ESA, provided a broad range of environmental monitoring. ERS-1 was operational from July 1991 - March 2000. ERS-2 was operational from April 1995 - July 2011.
ESA
European Space Agency - ESA website
ESA is a multi-national European space agency that coordinates the space programme of Europe.
ESAC
Earth Science Advisory Committee
ESL
Expert Support Laboratory. The algorithms for Level 2 data processing comprise the retrieval of geophysical parameters from Level 1b (engineering) products. This step relies strongly on scientific inputs (e.g. methods for determing gas densities for atmospheric measurements) to be provided by scientific experts, i.e. the algorithms used in the operational processors are based on expert investigations. The Expert Support Laboratories are the formal implementation of this philosophy.
ESRIN
European Space Research Institute - ESRIN website
ESRIN is ESA's Earth Observation centre in Italy. It also serves as an interface between ESA and users of ESA's service, and is involved with international projects that make use of Earth observation.
EWFS
Envisat Web File Server
F

FD
Fast Delivery
FDGDR
Fast Delivery Geophysical Data Record, the standard RA GDR data product, available in slightly reduced quality within a few hours of measurement.
FFT
Fast Fourier Transform
FM
Frequency Modulated (eo) or Flight Model (envisat)
FOCC
Flight Operations Control Centre, located at ESOC Darmstadt
FOS
Flight Operation Segment, composed of the Flight Operations Control Centre located at ESOC, Darmstadt and the associated command and control stations. It provides control of the satellite through all mission phases.
FORMOSAT-2
FORMOSAT-2 website - FORMOSAT-2 is an NSPO Earth Observation mission, with an objective to acquire high resolution imagery for a broad range of applications.
FR
Fast Registration
FR (image)
Full Resolution
FTP (Server)
File Transfer Protocol (server)
G

GCP Ground Control Points
GDP
GOME Data Processor
GDR
Geophysical Data Record; the basic Level 2 product of RA-2.
GEM
Goddard Earth Model
GISTA
Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency - GISTA website
GISTDA is public organisation in Thailand that develops and applies Earth observation satellite technology and Geo-Informatics for the benefit of Thailand as a whole.
GLI
Global Imager
GMES
Global Monitoring for Environment and Security - GMES website
GMES is an European Union-led initiative to perform and provide Earth monitoring in six themes: marine, land, atmosphere, emergency, security, and climate change.
GOCE
Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer - GOCE website
GOCE is an ESA mission dedicated to studying Earth's gravity field and modelling the planet's geoid.
GOME
Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment - GOME website
GOME is a nadir-scanning ultraviolet and visible spectrometer for global monitoring of atmospheric Ozone. The instrument operated aboard the ERS-2 satellite.
GOMOS
Global Ozone Measurement by the Occultation of Stars - GOMOS website
GOMOS is a medium resolution spectrometer that operates aboard the Envisat satellite.
GOSAT
Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite - GOSAT website
GOSAT is a JAXA mission that aims to study global greenhouse gases and measure them, as well as monitor the atmosphere for Carbon Dioxide sources and sinks.
G-POD
GRID - Processing On Demand
GPS
Global Positioning System
GRACE
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - GRACE website
GRACE is a joint mission between NASA and DLR, to measure Earth's gravity. Its secondary objective is to study the temperature and humidity in the atmosphere. The mission is composed of twin satellites working in conjunction.
GRS1984
Geodetic Reference System 1984
GSE
Ground Support Equipment
GSE (GMES)
GMES Service Element
H

HDF
Hierarchical Data Format
HDDT
High Density Digital Tape
HH
Horizontal-Horizontal (polarisation)
HR (file)
High Rate
HR (image)
High Resolution
HLOP
High Level Operation Plan
HSM
High Speed Multiplexer, which assembles the payload science data into a continuous data stream
HV
Horizontal-Vertical (polarisation)
I

I
In-phase
ICU
Instrument Control Unit, a part of the distributed command and control function implemented on ESA spacecraft. The unit receives, decodes and executes high-level commands for its instrument, and autonomously performs health-checking and parameter monitoring. In the event of anomalies it takes autonomous recovery actions.
IFOV
Instantaneous Field of View
IGBP
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
IGDR
Interim Geophysical Data Record; the basic Level 2 product of RA-2. The term Interim refers to the fact that it is generated very soon after data acquisition so interim values of some parameters, such as the orbit, must be used until the full-precision values become available. Otherwise the product is identical to the GDR.
IJRS
International Journal of Remote Sensing
IKONOS-2
IKONOS-2 website - IKONOS-2 is a GeoEye imaging satellite that aims to deliver high-resolution Earth Observation imagery for commercial applications. It has been operational since 1999.
INPE
Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE website
INPE is a Brazilian reseach organisation dedicated to researching and applying space technologies.
IPF
Instrument Processing Facility
IR
Infrared
IRS
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite - IRS-P3 website and IRS-P6 website
IRS is an ISRO remote sensing series of satellites. IRS-P3 was an experimental craft, with the objective of performing Earth Observation and algorithm development. IRS-P3 was operational from 1996-2004. IRS-P6, also known as ResourceSat-1, has the goal of providing continued remote sensing data for land and water resources management, and has been operational since 2003.
ISCCP
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - ISCCP website
The ISCCP's goal is to collect weather satellite radiance measurements and to analyse them to infer the global distribution of clouds and their properties. This data is then used to study the role of clouds in the climate.
ISLR
Integrated Side Lobe Ratio
ISRO
Indian Space Research Organisation - ISRO website
ISRO's objective is to develop space technology and apply these technologies. ISRO has launched and operates a number of satellites to further this goal.
J

JAXA
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency - JAXA website
JAXA is the national agency responsible for space development and research in Japan
JERS-1
Japanese Earth Resources Satellite - JERS-1 website
JERS-1 was a joint JAXA/NASDA radar/optical mission with overall objectives of generating global datasets for resources surveying, establishing an integrated Earth observation system, and verifying instrument/system performance. The satellite was operational from 1992-1998.
K

KARI
Korea Aerospace Research Institute - KARI website
KARI is a Korean institute dedicated to aerospace research and developing and implementing applications in this field.
KOMPSAT
Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite - KOMPSAT-1 website and KOMPSAT-2 website
The KOMPSAT series, known as the Arirang series in South Korea, is a KARI mission providing Earth observation imagery for varied purposes, including disaster and environmental monitoring. KOMPSAT-1 was operational from 1999-2007. KOMPSAT-2 has been operational since 2006. KOMPSAT-3 and 5 are currently planned for the future.
L

Landsat MSS/RVB/TM/ETM
Landsat MSS/RBV website and Landsat TM/ETM website
Landsat is a joint NASA/USGS series of Earth Observing satellites. The MSS (Multispectral Scanner) was an instrument carried aboard Landsat-1 to Landsat-5 and performed high-resolution daytime acquisitons on a global basis and is still operational aboard Landsat-5. RBV (Return Beam Vidicon Camera) was an instrument carried aboard Landsat-1 to Landsat-3 and was used for cartography during daylight. TM (Thematic Mapper) is a multispectral scanning radiometer carried aboard Landsat-4 and Landsat-5, and is still operational aboard Landsat-5. ETM (Enhanced Thematic Mapper) is an instrument carried aboard Landsat-7 and covers the visible, near-infrared, shortwave, and thermal infrared spectral bands.
LBR
Low Bit Rate
LEOP
Launch and Early Orbit Phase, the critical first few orbits where appendage deployments are performed and the satellite is brought into a stable configuration.
LIDAR
Light Detection And Ranging
LR
Low Rate
LRAC
Low Rate Reference Archive Centre, colocated with the Payload Data Handling Station in Kiruna. Its primary goal is to maintain a Level 0 reference archive for all Low Rate instruments for the lifetime of the mission.
LRR
Laser Retro-Reflector
LTO
Linear Tape-Open
M

MDA
MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates - MDA website
MDA is a Canadian business that provides advanced information solutions to capture and process data, to produce information, and to improve decision making and operational performance of businesses and government organisations.
MDS
Measurement Data Set, a defined data entity within a product.
MERCI
MERIS Catalogue and Inventory
MERIS
Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
MGVI
Meris Global Vegetation Index
MIPAS
Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding
MLST
Mean Local Solar Time, which in the context used here refers to the descending node of the sun-synchronous orbit. The true local solar time of the descending node varies by up to 15 minutes around this value due to the eccentricity of the earths orbit around the sun, which induces an uneven angular velocity around the sun, while th eorbital precession rate is constant. This effect is known as the equation of time.
MPH
Main Product Header, the main description record at the start of every product, it follows a generic format.
MPP
Milestone Payment Plan.
MS
Multi-Spectral
MWIR
Medium Wavelength Infrared
MWR
MicroWave Radiometer
MWS
MicroWave Radiometer (sometimes referred to as MicroWave Sounder)
N

NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA website
NASA is the national space agency of the United States of America
NASDA
National Space Development Agency
NASDA was the national space agency of Japan until it was merged with two other organisations and became JAXA in 2003
Nimbus-7
Nimbus-7 website - Nimbus-7 was a NASA mission to map chlorophyll concentration in water, sediment distribution, gelbstoff concentrations, and the temperature of coastal waters and ocean currents. It was operational from 1978-1986.
NIR
Near Infrared
NMSF
Net Multiplicative Scaling Factor
NOAA
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration - NOAA website
NOAA is an American organisation dedicated to studying the the oceans and atmosphere in the interest of predicting changes to the climate, weather and oceans.
NOAA POES
NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites - NASA POES website
The POES Project is a joint mission between NOAA and EUMETSAT, and consists of a constellation of weather satellites provided by ESA and NASA.
NRT
Near Real Time
N/S
North / South
NSPO
National Space Program Office - NSPO website
NSPO is the civlian national space agency of the Republic of China (Taiwan)
O

OBDH
On-Board Data Handling, this term is used in the context OBDH Bus, which is a synchronous serial data exchange and time-management network used on-board ESA spacecraft.
OBRC
On Board Range Compression
OCI
Ocean Colour Imager
OCM
Ocean Colour Monitor
OCTS
Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner
Odin
Odin website - Odin is an international astronomy and aeronomy mission with the objectives of performing atmospheric research, stratospheric ozone chemistry observations, mesospheric ozone science, summer mesospheric science, and the coupling of atmospheric regions.
OGRC
On Ground Range Compression
OSMI
Ocean Scanning Multispectral Imager

P

PAC
Processing and Archiving Centre; a concept which evolved from the PAF's of the ERS era. Their development and implementation is funded on a national basis while the operation for the services defined in the Payload Data Segment concept is provided by ESA.
PAF
Processing and Archiving Facility of the ERS-1/2 mission. Four PAFs are operational. These are the D-PAF (located at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre (DFD) at the DLR premises at Oberpfaffenhofen/Germany), the F-PAF at IFREMER (Brest/France), the I-PAF in Matera/Italy and the UK-PAF in Farnborough/UK.
PAN
Panchromatic
PAR
Photosynthetically Active Radiation
PCD
Product Confidence Data, a coded set of quality flags generated at various stages of data processing.
PDHS
Payload Data Segment, comprises all those elements which are related to payload data acquisition, processing, archiving and those concerning the user interfaces and services.
PDS
Payload Data Segment, comprises all those elements which are related to payload data acquisition, processing, archiving and those concerning the user interfaces and services.
PEB
Payload Equipment Bay, part of the Payload Module of the Polar Platform.
PI
Principal Investigator
PLC
Payload Carrier, part of the Payload Module of the Polar Platform.
Pleaides-HR
Pleaides website - Pleaides-HR is a future CNES constellation of two satellites which aim to provide high resolution optical imaging using advanced Earth Observation technologies.
PLM
Payload Module, the part of the Polar Platform which is mission-specific.
PMC
Payload Management Computer, located in the Payload Module, is responsible for command and control of the payload. It communicates with the on-board computer in the Service Module.
POLDER
Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances
PPF
Polar Platform, a multimission spacecraft designed to accomadate large payloads in a sun-synchronous low earth orbit.
PPTL
Processor Point Target Linearity
PRARE
Precise Range and Range-rate Equipment
PRF
Pulse Repetition Frequency, the rate at which (typically) a radar emits transmit pulses.
PRI (data format)
Precision Image (data format)
PRI
Pulse Repetition Interval, the interval between radar pulses.
PROBA
Project for On-Board Autonomy - PROBA website
PROBA is an ESA mission, that was originally intended as a technology demonstration mission. Since then the original PROBA-1 satellite, and PROBA-2 and PROBA-V have also provided Earth Observation data and monitoring.
Q

Q
Quadrature
QA
Quality Assurance
Q/L
Quick-look
QuickBird-2
QuickBird-2 website - QuickBird-2 is a DigitalGlobe imaging satellite providing commercial high resolution Earth Observation imagery.
QuikSCAT
Quick Scatterometer - QuikSCAT website
QuikSCAT was a NASA mission that aimed to take ocean-wind measurements to aid in weather forecasts and climate research. The satellite was launched in 1999 and ceased functioning in 2009.
R

RA
Radar Altimeter
RA-2
Radar Altimeter-2
RA (archive)
Rolling Archive
RAC
Reflective Acoustic Coupling; a type of surface acoustic wave device in which the acoustic signal undergoes a reflection.
RADARSAT
RADAR Satellite - RADARSAT-2 website
RADARSAT is a joint CSA/MDA mission consisting of two Earth observation satellites. RADARSAT-1 was launched in 1995, and RADARSAT-2 was launched in 2007.
RapidEye
RapidEye website - RapidEye is an Earth Observation mission of RapidEye AG and is a constellation of five satellites, providing imagery on a commercial basis.
RMS
Root Mean Square
RR
Reduced Resolution
RS
Remote Sensing
RTU
Remote Terminal Unit, a semi-intelligent device which is linked to the PMC by the OBDH bus and which proveides control and monitoring functions for relatively simple equipment such as power distribution units.
S

SAG
Science Advisary Group
SAGE
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment - SAGE website
SAGE is a series of NASA remote sensing instruments, part of the NASA Earth Observing System. The three SAGE instruments have been used aboard satellites to study the atmosphere. The satellites that carried the first three instruments are no longer operational, but a fourth, SAGE-III-ISS, to be installed aboard the International Space Station, is planned for the future.
SAOCOM
Satellites for Observation and Communications - SAOCOM website
SAOCOM is a CONAE mission that will be Argentina's first remote sensing satellite.
SAR
Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave, refers to a device in which acoustic waves propagating on the surface of a piezo-electric crystal transfer a signal between two transducers. Extensively used for delay lines, both dispersive and non-dispersive.
SBUV
Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, flown on NOAA weather satellites 
S/C
Spacecraft
SCATT
Scatterometer
SCIAMACHY
Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography
SciSat
SciSat website - SciSat-1/ACE is a CSA atmospheric science mission.
SeaWiFS
Sea-Viewing Wide -Field-of-View Sensor - SeaWiFS website
SeaWiFS was a GeoEye instrument that operated aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. The instrument's objective was to measure reflected visible sunlight from the ocean's surface. The instrument operated from the launch of OrbView-2 in 1997 to 2010, when communications were lost with the satellite.
SHARP
Standard-family HRPT Archive Request
SLC
Single-Look Complex (dataset)
SLR
Satellite Laser Ranging station.
SMOS
Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity - SMOS website
SMOS is an ESA mission that aims to gather global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, leading to an improved understanding of Earth's water cycle and helping to predict weather and climate forecasting.
SNSB
Swedish National Space Board - SNSB website
The SNSB is a Swedish government agency responsible for national and international space and remote sensing activities, primarily in the fields of research and development.
SPH
Secondary Product Header.
SPOT
Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre - SPOT-4 website and Spot-5 website
The SPOT mission is a series of Earth Observation satellites that have provided high-resolution optical imagery since 1986. Spot Image and CNES are responsible for the first five satellites, and Spot image and Astrium are planning two further satellites in the series for the future. SPOT-1 was operational from 1986-2003. SPOT-2 was operational from 1990-2009. SPOT-3 was operational from 1993-1996. SPOT-4 and 5 are currently operational.
SRTM
Shutle Radar Topography Mission - SRTM website
SRTM was an international mission between NASA/NGA, DLR, and ASI. It was an instrument that was carried aboard the shuttle Endeavour in 2000 and obtained elevation data on a near-global scale with the goal of creating a high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth.
SSH
Sea Surface Height
SSR
Satellite System Receiver
SST
Sea Surface Temperature
SSTL
Surrey Satellite Technology Limited - SSTL website
SSTL is a British company that provides international services for designing, manufacturing, launching and operating small satellites and associated technologies. They also provide consultancy and research and development services.
StM
Structural Model
STP
Standart Temperature (0oC) and Pressure (1 atm)
SWIR
Short Wave Infrared
T

TDT
Terrestrial Dynamic Time
TEKES
TEKES website - TEKES is the national funding agency for technology and innovation in Finland
THEOS
Thailand Earth Observation System - THEOS website
THEOS is an Earth Observation mission of GISTDA, to provide affordable access to space for Thailand and operational experience for future space missions.
TIR
Thermal Infrared
TM
Telemetry
TOA
Top of Atmosphere
TOMS
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, flown on Nimbus-7 and operational in 1978 - 1988.
TopSat
TopSat website - TopSat was a low-cost UK collaborative mission that served as a demonstration satellite in exploring the capabilities of high-resolution imaging on samll satellites.
TPM
Third Party Mission
TPMO
TPM Owner/Operator
TT&C
Tracking, Telemetry and Control, a term used to refer to the ground stations used in the day-to-day monitoring and control of a satellite. In the case of Envisat this function is performed by conventional S-band low-rate lnks to a ground station located in Kiruna.
TWT
Travelling Wave Tube, a microwave amplification device, which works by transferring energy from an electron beam to a wave propagating in a helix structure within the tube.
U

UET
User Earth Terminal
UNCFCCC
United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change
UPS
Universal Polar Stereographic
USGS
United States Geological Survey - USGS website
USGS is a scientific organisation dedicated to studying the ecosystem and environment, natural hazards, and natural resources, and the impacts of climate and land-use change.
USO
Ultra Stable Oscillator. an oscillator with a long term frequency stability of the order 10^8.
UTC
Universal Time Coordinate (eo) or Universal Time Corrected (ENVISAT) 
UTM
Universe Transverse Mercator
UV
Ultraviolet
V

VIS
Visible
VH
Vertical-Horizontal (polarisation)
VV
Vertical-Vertical (polarisation)
W

WRS
World Reference System
WS
Wind Scatterometer
WSC
Wind Scatterometer