Icy coast of Manitoba
With year-round temperatures (-5°C) lower than similar subarctic areas and a higher freezing point (lower salinity) of the water compared to the rest of the oceans, the Canadian Hudson Bay remains frozen for several months each year, typically from mid-December through mid-June.
In this 100 m Proba-V image from early November 2017 over the coast of the snow-covered Manitoba province, the cyan highlighting clearly shows the formation of sea ice.
A steady increase in regional temperatures lengthened this ice-free period over the last 100 years: in the southeast of the bay, for instance, the ice-free season was extended by 7 days in the years between 1971 and 2007 alone.
According to the IPCC's 2014 report, the impact of climate change in the loss, thinning and faster break-up of the ice sheets over land and sea, is likely to threaten the habitats of ringed seal and polar bear populations.
© ESA-BELSPO 2018, produced by VITO
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