Specification of Level 2 Products
This section describes the product name convention and the product classification.
Product Name Convention
According to [AD13], Swarm product names consist of 10 digits, which are subdivided into two subfields as follows: TTTTTTTTTT = FFFFDDDDDD, where FFFF = File Category and DDDDDD = Semantic Descriptor.
For L2 products FFFF = FFFx, where FFF describes the product type (e.g. MCO  Magnetic Core Field) and for the single satelitte x = A, B or C for Swarm A, Swarm B, or Swarm C, respectively. If the product is derived from (available for) the satellite constellation (e.g. A and C) x = _.
The Semantic Descriptor DDDDDD = DDDy2z. DDD provides a description which is specific for each product, for example TMS for time series or SHA for spherical harmonics and y = _.
The last two digits describe the product level [AD13]. Therefore digit 9 is always 2, identifying the product as a L2 product. The last digit z indicates the origin or the purpose of the product. This applies especially when different chains lead to the same science product. This last digit z can be:
C  derived from Comprehensive Inversion 
D  derived from dedicated chain 
F  Fast Track product 
E  Extended, only applied for extended lithospheric field maps (MLI_SHA_2E) 
_  Only one chain has been identified to lead to this product type 
a  Product derived from candidate chain a (only applied for mantle conductivity products  derived in the frequency domain) 
b  Product derived from candidate chain b (only applied for mantle conductivity products  derived in the time domain) 
Product Classification
L2 product Categories (Cat) have been defined in [AD12]. Each L2 product is attributed to one of these categories.
Cat1: Complex algorithms contributing to the generation of a L2 product of the various sources of the Earth's magnetic field, of thermospheric products, and for Precise Orbit determination. The generation of Cat1 products require interaction with experienced scientists. The products will be processed by SCARF, and will be distributed by ESA.
Cat2: Algorithms leading to a L2 product with minimum delay with respect to the generation of the corresponding Level 1b data. The generation of Cat2 products is designed to run automatically. The Cat2 products will be generated and distributed by ESA.
Fast Track products: The validation is performed by means of an internal quality check in the algorithms of each of these products, and the quality of the product is provided, e.g., by a quality flag. Fast Track products are released without a validation report. The Cat1 magnetic products, e.g. core field model and magnetospheric model, will be derived on Fast Track. All Cat2 products are Fast Track products. For all Fast Track products, the last letter of the product name is F (see Product Name Convention).
Validation Reports: For nonFast Track products a validation report is required. Validation reports are provided for each product chain (see L2 Product Overview Table). The intercomparison between products of two chains in one product family (e.g. MCO_SHA_2D and MCO_SHA_2C) will be released in one validation report (e.g MCO_VAL_2_). Validation report products exist for following product families (e.g.): core field models, lithospheric field models, ionospheric models, magnetosphere models, 1Dmantle conductivity (mantle conductivity model and Cresponse), 3Dmantle conductivity (mantle conductivity model and Cresponse maps), precise orbit determination, and thermospheric winds and density.
Level 2 Product Overview
Complete information about the Swarm Level 2 products can be found in the following document: "Product specification for L2 Products and Auxiliary Products".
More information about Science Objectives can be found on the Mission Overview web page.
Science Objective  Product Name  Description  Format  Extension 
Core Field  MCO_SHA_2C  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc 
MCO_SHA_2D  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc  
MCO_VAL_2C  Cat1: Validation report on core magnetic field  
MCO_VAL_2D  Cat1: Validation report on core magnetic field  
MCO_VAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report on core magnetic field  
MCO_SHA_2F  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc  
MCO_SHA_2X  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc  
Lithospheric Field  MLI_SHA_2C  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the lithospheric field  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc 
MLI_SHA_2D  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the lithospheric field  ASCII listing (SHC)  .shc  
MLI_VAL_2C  Cat1: Validation report on lithospheric field  
MLI_VAL_2D  Cat1: Validation report on lithospheric field  
MLI_VAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report on lithospheric field  
Mantle Conductivity  MIN_1DM_2_  Cat1: 1D model of mantle conductivity  ASCII listing  .txt 
MCR_1DM_2_  Cat1: 1D Cresponse maps  ASCII listing  .txt  
MI1_VAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report on 1D mantle conductivity  
MC1_VAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report on 1D Cresponse  
External Current Systems  MMA_SHA_2C  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the largescale magnetospheric field and its Earthinduced counterpart  CDF  .cdf 
MMA_VAL_2C  Cat1: Validation report magnetospheric magnetic model  
MMA_SHA_2F  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the largescale magnetospheric field and its Earthinduced counterpart  CDF  .cdf  
MIO_SHA_2C  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the daily geomagnetic variation at middle latitudes (Sq) and low latitudes (EEJ)  ASCII listing  .txt  
MIO_SHA_2D  Cat1: Spherical harmonic model of the daily geomagnetic variation at middle latitudes (Sq) and low latitudes (EEJ)  ASCII listing  .txt  
MIO_VAL_2C  Cat1: Validation report on ionospheric magnetic model  
MIO_VAL_2D  Cat1: Validation report on ionospheric magnetic model  
MIO_VAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report on ionospheric magnetic model  
IBIxTMS_2F  Cat2: Ionospheric bubble index  CDF  .cdf  
TECxTMS_2F  Cat2: Time series of the ionospheric total electron content  CDF  .cdf  
FAC_TMS_2F 
Cat2: Time series of fieldaligned currents (FACdual) 
CDF  .cdf  
FACxTMS_2F 
Cat2: Time series of fieldaligned currents (FACsingle) 
CDF  .cdf  
EEFxTMS_2F  Cat2: Equatorial Electric Field  CDF  .cdf  
IPDxIRR_2F  Time series of characteristics of the plasma density and plasma irregularities along the orbit from single satellite measurements  CDF  .cdf  
Precise Orbit Determination  SP3xCOM_2_  Cat1: time series of position and velocity of the center of mass of each satellite (reduceddynamic POD)  ASCII listing (SP3)  .sp3 
SP3xKIN_2_  Cat1: time series of position of the center of mass of each satellite (kinematic POD)  ASCII listing (SP3)  .sp3  
SP3xVAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report for SP3xCOM_2_  
ACCxPOD_2_  Cat1: Time series of nongravitational accelerations estimated by POD  CDF  .cdf  
Accelerometry  ACCxCAL_2_  Cat1: Corrected and calibrated accelerometer observations  CDF  .cdf 
ACCxVAL_2_  Cat1: Validation report for ACCxCAL_2_  
Magnetic Forcing of the Upper Atmosphere  ACCx_AE_2_  Cat1: Time series of calibrated and preprocessed accelerometer observations and of aerodynamic accelerations  CDF  .cdf 
DNSxPOD_2_  Cat1: time series of neutral thermospheric density from precise orbit determination data only  CDF  .cdf  
DNSxACC_2_  Cat1: time series of neutral thermospheric density  CDF  .cdf 
Level 2 Products
Core Field
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_SHA_2C
Product identifier  MCO_SHA_2C 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation 
Input Data  MCO_SHAi2C, MCO_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  All available quiet time observations from the mission 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 18 
Time representation  Snapshot models, based on order 5 splines with 6 months knots spacing 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refer to quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfit provided in validation report 
Data volume  ~10 kB 
Data format  ASCII table (SHC) [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span  As input time span but with some extrapolations 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1.5 months 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_SHA_2D
Product identifier  MCO_SHA_2D 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation 
Input Data  MCO_SHAi2D, MCO_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  Nominal minimum of 1 year up to the full Swarm data span 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 18 
Time representation  Snapshot models (corresponding to 1/2 year knot separation and order 6 splines) 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refer to quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfit, power spectra etc. provided in validation report 
Data volume  ~10 kB 
Data format  ASCII table (SHC) [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span  Time span same as for input 
Update rate  1 per year 
Latency  6 weeks 
Notes  The model accuracy strongly depends on the LT offset between the A and C satellite pair and the satellite B 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_VAL_2C
Product identifier  MCO_VAL_2C 
Definition  Validation report for core field model from CI chain 
Input Data  MCO_SHAiC, MCO_VALi2C, AUX_OBS_2_, AUX_IGR_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_VAL_2D
Product identifier  MCO_VAL_2D 
Definition  Validation report for core field model from dedicated chain 
Input Data  MCO_SHAi2D, MCO_VALi2D, AUX_OBS_2_, AUX_IGR_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  1 per year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_VAL_2_
Product identifier  MCO_VAL_2_ 
Definition  Comparative validation report for core field models 
Input Data  MCO_SHA_2C, MCO_SHA_2D, MCO_VAL_2C, MCO_VAL_2D, AUX_OBS_2_, AUX_IGR_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  Each time both, MCO_SHA_2C and MCO_SHA_2D have been released 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_SHA_2F
Product identifier  MCO_SHA_2F 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation 
Input Data  MAGx_LR_1B, AUX_IGR_2_, AUX_COR_2_, AUX_LIT_2_, AUX_DST_2_, AUX_KP__2_, AUX_IMF_2_. Optional: MMA_SHAi2C, MMA_SHA_2F, MIN_1DMi2_ 
Input Time Span  Minimum of 4 months 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 18 
Time representation  Snapshot models 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refere to quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfit, power spectra etc. provided in validation report 
Data volume  ~10 kB 
Data format  ASCII table [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span and resolution 
Time span: Minimum 4 months Time resolution: corresponding to 3 month knots separation and order 2 splines 
Update rate  First after 4 month, afterwards update is three months (if granted by data quality). 
Latency  1 week 
Notes  Assumed updated rate is three month 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCO_SHA_2X
Product identifier  MCO_SHA_2X 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the main (core) field and its temporal variation 
Input Data  MAGx_LR_1B, AUX_DST_2_, AUX_KP__2_, AUX_IMF_2_, AUX_OBS_2_ 
Input Time Span  Minimum of 4 months 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 18 
Time representation  Snapshot models 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  
Quality indicator  
Data volume  ~10 kB 
Data format  ASCII table [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span and resolution 
Time span: Minimum 4 months Time resolution: corresponding to 3 month knots separation and order 2 splines 
Update rate  First after 4 month, afterwards update is three months (if granted by data quality). 
Latency  1 week 
Notes 
Assumed updated rate is three month
More information can be found at 
Lithospheric Field
⇒ L2 Cat1: MLI_SHA_2C
Product identifier  MLI_SHA_2C 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the lithospheric field 
Input Data  MLI_SHAi2C, MLI_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  All available quiet time observations from the mission 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics from degree 16 to 150 
Time representation  Snapshot 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfits provided in validation report 
Data volume  ~0.5 MB 
Data format  ASCII table (SHC) [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span  N/A (lithospheric field is considered constant over the analysed time range) 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1.5 months 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MLI_SHA_2D
Product identifier  MLI_SHA_2D 
Definition  Spherical harmonic model of the lithospheric field 
Input Data  MLI_SHAi2D, MLI_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  One to four years of full Swarm data set 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics from degree 16 to 150 
Time representation  Snapshot 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfits provided in validation report 
Data volume  ~0.5 MB 
Data format  ASCII table (SHC) [AD15] 
Output Data  Gauss coefficients 
Output time span  N/A (lithospheric field is considered constant over the analysed time range) 
Update rate  One model every year 
Latency  One month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MLI_VAL_2C
Product identifier  MLI_VAL_2C 
Definition  Validation report for lithospheric field model from CI chain 
Input Data  MLI_SHAi2C, MLI_VALi2C, AUX_LIT_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MLI_VAL_2D
Product identifier  MLI_VAL_2 
Definition  Validation report for lithospheric field model from dedicated 
Input Data  MLI_SHAi2D, MLI_VALi2D, AUX_LIT_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  One model every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MLI_VAL_2_
Product identifier  MLI_VAL_2_ 
Definition  Comparison validation report for lithospheric field model 
Input Data  MLI_SHA_2C, MLI_SHA_2D, MLI_SHA_2E, MLI_VAL_2C, MLI_VAL_2D, MLI_VAL_2E, AUX_LIT_2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  Each time both, MLI_SHA_2C , MLI_SHA_2D and MLI_SHA_2D have been released 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
Mantle Conductivity
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIN_1DM_2_
Product identifier  MIN_1DM_2_ 
Definition  1D model of mantle conductivity 
Input Data  MIN_1DMi2_, MC1_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  2 years 
Spatial representation  Conductivity distribution with respect to depth (1D layered model of the Earth) 
Time representation  N/A 
Units  Kilometers (for layer radii), Siemens per meter (for conductivities) 
Resolution  N/A 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  N/A 
Data volume  A few Kb 
Data format  ASCII listing [AD15] 
Output Data  Conductivities within the layer, and radii of the top of the layer 
Output time span  N/A 
Update rate  First version after 2 years, update every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes  This 1D model is foreseen as the output of the 1D frequency domain inversion 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MCR_1DM_2_
Product identifier  MCR_1DM_2_ 
Definition  Global 1D Cresponses 
Input Data  MCR_1DMi2_, MC1_VAL_2_ 
Input Time Span  2 years 
Spatial representation  N/A 
Time representation  N/A 
Units  km 
Resolution  N/A 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  Uncertainties and squared coherencies coming from signal processing 
Data volume  A few Kb 
Data format  ASCII listing [AD15] 
Output Data  Cresponses (real and imaginary parts), their uncertainties and squared coherences on a set of periods 
Output time span and resolution  N/A 
Update rate  First version after 2 years, update every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MI1_VAL_2_
Product identifier  MI1_VAL_2_ 
Definition  Validation report for 1D mantle conductivity 
Input Data  MIN_1DMi2_, MI1_VALi2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  First version after 2 years, update every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MC1_VAL_2_
Product identifier  MC1_VAL_2_ 
Definition  Validation report for 1D Cresponse 
Input Data  MCR_1DMi2_, MC1_VALi2_ 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Update rate  First version after 2 years, update every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
External Current Systems
⇒ L2 Cat1: MMA_SHA_2C
Product identifier  MMA_SHA_2C  
Definition  Spherical harmonic representation of the large scale magnetospheric field and of its induced counterpart  
Input data  MMA_SHAi2C, MMA_VAL_2_  
Input time span  All available quiet time observations from the mission  
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics of degree and order at least 1 for the external field and of degree and order at least 5 for its Earth induced counterpart  
Time representation  Time series  
Units  nT  
Resolution  ≤ 1 pT  
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report  
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfit provided in the validation report  
Data volume  ~2 MB/year  
Data format 
CDF Various temporal resolutions may be employed for various external and internal coefficients, hence a number of CDF variable groups are used to store external (named "...qs_N") respectively internal (named "...gh_N") coefficients. Note: the temporal resolutions for the various groups of external and internal coefficients are usually not identical.


Output data  Time series of external and induced SH coefficients in dipole coordinate frame; rootmeansquare differences between (processed) input data and models; number of data from each satellite used for each model; quality flag  
Output time span  Time span as input  
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year  
Latency  1.5 months  
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MMA_VAL_2C
Product identifier  MMA_VAL_2C 
Definition  Validation report for magnetospheric field model from CI chain 
Input data  MMA_SHAi2C, MMA_SHA_2F, MMA_VALi2C 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output data  PDF file 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MMA_SHA_2F
Product identifier  MMA_SHA_2F  
Definition  Spherical harmonic representation of the large scale magnetospheric field and its induced counterpart  
Input data  MAGx_LR_1B, AUX_IGR_2_, AUX_COR_2_, MCO_SHA_2F, MCO_SHA_2C, MCO_SHA_2D, AUX_LIT_2_, MLI_SHA_2C, MIO_SHA_2C, AUX_F10_2_, AUX_IMF_2F, AUX_DST_2_, AUX_KP__2_, AUX_OBS_2_  
Input time span  Full Swarm data set covering at least 30 days  
Spatial representation  Degree 1 spherical Harmonics for the external and internally induced fields  
Time representation  Snapshot values 1.5 hours apart.  
Units  See variable ‘Units' in ‘Data format', below.  
Resolution  See variable ‘Type' in ‘Data format', below.  
Uncertainty  Overall uncertainty will include contributions from uncertainties in the Input Data, which are not calculated here. Estimates of the uncertainty resulting from the modeling process after the Input Data has been processed can be obtained from the ‘rms' output variable.  
Quality indicator  Rootmeansquare difference between model and (processed) input data; number of data used per model; quality flag.  
Data volume  ~5 MB/year  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  Time series of external and induced SH coefficients in Solar Magnetic and Geographic coordinate frames; rootmeansquare differences between (processed) input data and models; number of data from each satellite used for each model; quality flag.  
Output time span  1 day  
Update rate  Daily  
Latency  < 1 day  
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIO_SHA_2C
Product identifier  MIO_SHA_2C 
Definition  Spherical harmonic representation of the daily geomagnetic variations at mid and low latitudes (Sq and EEJ) 
Input Data  MIO_SHAi2C, MIO_VAL_2_ 
Input time span  All available quiet time observations from the mission 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 60 and order 12 in dipole coordinates 
Time representation  Fourier Series, seasonal and daily periodicity 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 pT 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfit provided in the validation report 
Data volume  ~130 kB 
Data format  ASCII listing [AD15] 
Output data  Coefficients of SH model in dipole coordinates, with seasonal and diurnal periodicity 
Output time span  N/A 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1.5 months 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIO_SHA_2D
Product identifier  MIO_SHA_2D 
Definition  Spherical harmonic representation of the daily geomagnetic variations at mid and low latitudes (Sq and EEJ) 
Input data  MIO_SHAi2D, MIO_VAL_2_ 
Input time span  3 months to 1 year, to be confirmed and aligned to update rate 
Spatial representation  Spherical Harmonics up to degree 60 and order 12 in dipole coordinates 
Time representation  Fourier Series, seasonal and daily periodicity 
Units  nT 
Resolution  1 fT 
Uncertainty  Refer to product quality report 
Quality indicator  Statistics of data misfits provided in the validation report 
Data volume  ~ 3.5 Mo' 
Data format  ASCII listing [AD15] 
Output data  Coefficients of SH model in dipole coordinates, with seasonal and diurnal periodicity 
Output time span  N/A 
Update rate  First after 6 months, 1 year, and update every year 
Latency  1.5 months 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIO_VAL_2C
Product identifier  MIO_VAL_2C 
Definition  Validation report for ionospheric field model from CI chain 
Input data  MIO_SHAi2C, MIO_VALi2C 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output data  PDF file 
Update rate  First after 1 year, updated every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIO_VAL_2D
Product identifier  MIO_VAL_2D 
Definition  Validation report for ionospheric field model from dedicated chain 
Input data  MIO_SHAi2D, MIO_VALi2D 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output data  PDF file 
Update rate  First after 6 months, 1 year, and update every year 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat1: MIO_VAL_2_
Product identifier  MIO_VAL_2_ 
Definition  Comparison validation report for ionospheric field model 
Input data  MIO_SHA_2C, MIO_SHA_2D, MIO_VAL_2C, MIO_VAL_2D 
Data volume  < 1 Mb per day 
Data format  
Output data  PDF file 
Update rate  Each time when both, MIO_SHA_2C and MIO_SHA_2D are released. 
Latency  1 month 
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat2: IBIxTMS_2F
Product identifier  IBIxTMS_2F  
Definition  Ionospheric bubble index  
Input data  MAGx_LR_1B, EFIx_PL_1B, Satellite positions, Time stamps (UTC), AUX_IGR_2F, AUX_COR_2F, AUX_LIT_2F, AUX_PMF_2F, AUX_F10_2F, AUX_DST_2F, AUX_IMF_2F, AUX_SWV_2F, AUX_PSM_2F, AUX_PGM_2F  
Input time span  3 days  
Spatial representation  One index per data point (characterising whether the magnetic observation is affected by bubble or not.)  
Time representation  1s time series  
Units  N/A  
Resolution  N/A  
Uncertainty  N/A  
Quality indicator 
Flags_Bubble:
Flags_B, Flags_F and Flags_q provided in [AD5]. 

Data volume  ~4 MB/day/satellite  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  1 day  
Latency  6 min  
Update rate  1 per day  
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat2: TECxTMS_2F
Product identifier  TECxTMS_2F  
Definition  Time series of the ionospheric total electron content  
Input data  GPS RINEX observation and navigation files (GPSX_RO_1B), Swarm satellite ephemeris (MODX_SC_1B) GPS and Swarm satellite ephemeris (AUX_GPSEPH) GPS transmitter biases(AUX_DCB_2F) Leap seconds (AUX_USLEAP)  
Input time span  3 days  
Spatial representation  Line representation of GPS –Swarm link  
Time representation  1s time series for TEC and 1 day for DCB  
Units  TECU (10^{16} electrons/m^{2})  
Resolution  1E8 TECU  
Uncertainty  2 TECU  
Quality indicator  Relative_STEC_RMS (RMS deviation between code and carrier phases) and DCB_Error  
Data volume  ~4 MB / day / satellite  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  1 day  
Latency  6 min  
Update rate  1 per day  
Notes 
The cadence of the TECxTMS_2F data has changed from 10s (0.1 Hz) to 1s (1 Hz) at:
It is recommended to use absolute VTEC data with corresponding elevation angles of the GPS rays of at least 50°. 
⇒ L2 Cat2: FAC_TMS_2F
Product identifier  FAC_TMS_2F  
Definition 
Time series of fieldaligned and radial current densities along the orbit using the dualsatellite method. Fieldaligned current (FAC) density is derived by the multiplication of the radial current (IRC) density with the inclination angle of the geomagnetic field. The fieldaligned current density can only be calculated at latitudes, where the magnetic field is well inclined, i.e. I > 30°. Near the magnetic equator for magnetic inclination angles I < 30° FAC values are set to NaN. The radial current density can be provided along the whole orbit, except for latitudes θ>86° (near poles), where both FAC and IRC values are set to NaN. Note that the magnetic field data used for the dualsatellite method is lowpass filtered with a 3dB cutoff period of 20 s (corresponding to a wavelength of 150 km). This step is indispensable because the lateral distance between Swarm A and Swarm C has to be taken into account. 

Input data  MAGA_LR_1B, MAGC_LR_1B, Time stamps (UTC), AUX_IGR_2F, AUX_COR_2F, AUX_LIT_2F, AUX_PMF_2F, AUX_F10_2F, AUX_DST_2F, AUX_IMF_2F, AUX_SWV_2F, AUX_PSM_2F, AUX_PGM_2F  
Input time span  3 days  
Spatial representation  Current density estimates along entire orbits at positions between SwA and SwC  
Time representation  Time series of current density, Δt=1sec  
Units  Current density: µA/m^{2}  
Resolution  Current density: 1E6 µA/m^{2}  
Uncertainty  50 nA/m^{2} for periods 10s to 90min on top of constant bias of <200nA/m^{2}, for latitudes below 80°, gradually degrading between 80° to 86°, no values beyond 86°  
Quality indicator 
Flags:
A table below presents the list of 10 individual and independent digits, characterizing the FACdual (FAC_TMS_2F) product quality. Digits from 1 to 8 report issues that may have been occurred at one or more of the measurement points used for the computation of a current density value. Digits 9 and 10 report whether the NaN values for the current density were used or not. Values N>0 mark the number of measurement points that were affected and value 0 marks not affected ones. For FACdual N can be equal to 1, 2, 3, or 4.
Flags_B, Flags_F and Flags_q are handed through from Level 1b processing [AD5]. 

Data volume  5 MB per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  1day  
Update rate  1 per day  
Latency  10 min  
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat2: FACxTMS_2F
Product identifier  FACxTMS_2F  
Definition  Time series of fieldaligned and radial current densities along the orbit from single satellite measurements. Fieldaligned current (FAC) density is derived by the multiplication of the radial current (IRC) density with the inclination angle of the geomagnetic field. The fieldaligned current density can only be calculated at latitudes, where the magnetic field is well inclined, i.e. I > 30°. Near the magnetic equator for magnetic inclination angles I < 30° FAC values are set to NaN. The radial current density can be provided along the whole orbit. Scale size >7.5 km.  
Input data  MAGx_LR_1B, Satellite positions, Time stamps (UTC), AUX_IGR_2F, AUX_COR_2F, AUX_LIT_2F, AUX_PMF_2F, AUX_F10_2F, AUX_DST_2F, AUX_IMF_2F, AUX_SWV_2F, AUX_PSM_2F, AUX_PGM_2F  
Input time span  3 days  
Spatial representation  Current density estimates along entire orbits at positions of SwA, SwB, and SwC.  
Time representation  Time series of current density, Δt=1sec  
Units  Current density: µA/m^{2}  
Resolution  Current density: 1E6 µA/m^{2}  
Uncertainty  less than FAC_TMS_2F, 70 nA/m^{2} on top of constant bias of <200nA/m^{2}, for latitudes below 80°, gradually degrading between 80° to 86°, no values beyond 86°  
Quality indicator 
Flags:
A table below presents the list of 10 individual and independent digits, characterizing the FACsingle (FACxTMS_2F) product quality. Digits from 1 to 8 report issues that may have been occurred at one or more of the measurement points used for the computation of a current density value. Digits 9 and 10 report whether the NaN values for the current density were used or not. Values N>0 mark the number of measurement points that were affected and value 0 marks not affected ones. For FACsingle N can be equal to 1 or 2.
Flags_B, Flags_F and Flags_q are handed through from Level 1b processing [AD5]. 

Data volume  5MB per day, per satellite  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  1day  
Latency  10 min  
Update rate  1 per day  
Notes 
⇒ L2 Cat2: EEFxTMS_2F
Product identifier  EEFxTMS_2F  
Definition  Dayside equatorial electric field  
Input data  MAGx_LR_1B, AUX_DST_2F, AUX_KP__2F , AUX_F10_2F, AUX_IGR_2F, AUX_COR_2F, AUX_LIT_2F, AUX_PMF_2F, AUX_PSM_2F, AUX_PGM_2F, AUX_IRZ_2F  
Input time span  Every dayside equator crossing ±20 minutes  
Spatial representation  One longitude/latitude pair (on the magnetic equator ) for each output value  
Time representation  Single values at time of dayside equator crossing  
Units  V/m  
Resolution  0.1 mV/m  
Uncertainty  0.1 mV/m  
Quality indicator  Relative error between modeled and observed current profile  
Data volume  < 2 kB  
Data format 
CDF


Output data 
CDF file with time series 

Output time span  Continuous for entire mission. One value for each dayside equator crossing (90 minute sampling for daynight local time orbits, 45 minutes for dawndusk orbits)  
Update rate  One output file per day  
Latency  20 minutes  
Notes 
⇒ L2: IPDxIRR_2F
Product identifier  IPDxIPR_2F  
Definition 
Time series of characteristics of the plasma density and plasma irregularities along the orbit from single satellite measurements. Time series of local plasma conditions, including background density and total electron content. Data related to geomagnetic regions in the ionosphere. Indication of severity of plasma irregularities for groundbased users provided 

Input data  EFI_LP_1B, TECxTMS_2F, AOBxFAC_2F, IBIxTMS_2F, PCP – Polar Cap Products  
Input time span  3 days  
Spatial representation  Data provided along entire orbits at positions of SwA, SwB, and SwC  
Time representation  1 second time series (the electron density data are downsampled to 1 second resolution; the timestamp of the electron density and TEC data are rounded to the nearest integer UTC seconds)  
Units  See data format table  
Resolution  Temporal data resolution of 1 second, density variations estimated at 0.5 second resolution  
Uncertainty  N/A  
Quality indicator  Quality flags are handed through from Level 1b and Level 2 processing which is used as input data  
Data volume  ca.10 MB per day, per satellite  
Data format  CDF  
Output data 
CDF file with time series


Output time span  1 day  
Update rate  1 per day  
Latency  10 min  
Notes  The meanings of the PCP_flag are as follows: 0 if the plasma density measurement occurred outside a polar cap patch. 1 if the plasma density measurement occurred at one of the edges of a polar cap patch (no plasma velocity measurements are available). 2 if the plasma density measurement occurred at the leading edge of a polar cap patch. 3 if the plasma density measurement occurred at the trailing edge of a polar cap patch. 4 if the plasma density measurement occurred inside a polar cap patch proper. When no ion drift data is available, the leading and trailing edges cannot be distinguished. In this case the polar cap patch flag is set to 4 throughout the patch proper and to 1 throughout both edges 
Precise Orbit Determination
⇒ L2 Cat1: SP3xCOM_2_
Product identifier  SP3xCOM_2_ 
Definition  Time series of dynamic position and velocity of the center of mass of each satellite in the ITRF (Earthfixed) frame 
Input Data  GPSA_RO_1B, GPSB_RO_1B, GPSC_RO_1B, STRAATT_1B, STRBATT_1B, STRCATT_1B, MODA_SC_1B, MODB_SC_1B, MODC_SC_1B, SC_xDYN_1B, External data from IGS, IERS, CODE 
Input Time Span  30 hr (daily batches with overlap) 
Spatial representation  N/A 
Time representation  GPS time (seconds – s), time step = 10 s 
Units  km for position, dm/s for velocity 
Resolution  1 ps for time, mm for position, 0.1 μm/s for velocity 
Uncertainty  10 cm 3D for position 
Quality indicator  Validation report SP3xVAL_2_ 
Data volume  < 2 Megabyte (MB) per satellite per day 
Data format  SP3c [AD15] 
Output Data  SP3c file 
Output time span  24 hr 
Update rate  Daily 
Latency  21 days 
Notes 
Central 24 hr of input time span will be selected for SP3 product Quality report will be provided as separate Level 2 product 
⇒ L2 Cat1: SP3xKIN_2_
Product identifier  SP3xKIN_2_ 
Definition  Time series of kinematic position of the center of mass of each satellite in the ITRF (Earthfixed) frame 
Input Data  GPSA_RO_1B, GPSB_RO_1B, GPSC_RO_1B, STRAATT_1B, STRBATT_1B, STRCATT_1B, MODA_SC_1B, MODB_SC_1B, MODC_SC_1B, SC_xDYN_1B, External data from IGS, IERS, CODE 
Input Time Span  30 hr (daily batches with overlap) 
Spatial representation  N/A 
Time representation  GPS time (seconds – s), observation epochs 
Units  km for position, dm/s for velocity 
Resolution  1 ps for time, mm for position, 0.1 μm/s for velocity 
Uncertainty  10 cm 3D for position 
Quality indicator  Validation report SP3xVAL_2_ 
Data volume  < 15 Megabyte (MB) per satellite per day 
Data format  SP3c [AD15] 
Output Data  SP3c file 
Output time span  24 hr 
Update rate  Daily 
Latency  21 days 
Notes 
Central 24 hr of input time span will be selected for SP3 product Quality report will be provided as separate Level 2 product 
⇒ L2 Cat1: SP3xVAL_2_
Product identifier  SP3xVAL_2_ 
Definition  Validation report for precise orbit solutions SP3xCOM_2_ and SP3xKIN_2_ 
Input Data 
SP3xCOM_2_, SP3xKIN_2_, ILRS Swarm tracking data, Diagnostic and statistical output from orbit determination process

Input Time Span  30 hr 
Data volume  < 20 Mb per satellite per day 
Data format  
Output Data  PDF file 
Output time span  24 hr 
Update rate  1 day 
Latency  21 per day 
Notes  30 hr time input time span includes overlaps between consecutive orbit solutions 
⇒ L2 Cat1: ACCxPOD_2_
Product identifier  ACCxPOD_2_  
Definition  Time series of nongravitational accelerations obtained by POD  
Input data  SP3xCOM_2_, GPSx_RO_1B, STRxATT_1B, SC_xDYN_1B, External data from CODE  
Input time span  30 hr (daily batches with overlap)  
Spatial representation  N/A  
Time representation  UTC (seconds – s), time step = 30 sec  
Units  m/s^{2 }  
Resolution  64 bit double precision floating point number format  
Uncertainty  10^{7} m/s^{2 }variance for alongtrack and crosstrack directions  
Quality indicator  Validation report DNSxVAL_2_  
Data volume  < 10 Kb per satellite per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series of accelerations  
Output time span  24 hr  
Update rate  1 day  
Latency  21 days  
Notes 
Version 0201 data is computed from GPS data using a Kalman filter approach. The reduceddynamic orbit is used as a priori reference orbit. The level 1B accelerometer files are only used for spacecraft mass and CoG information 
Accelerometry
⇒ L2 Cat1: ACCxCAL_2_
Product identifier  ACCxCAL_2_  
Definition  Time series of corrected and calibrated acceleration, including all corrections and calibration parameters  
Input data  ACCx_PR_1B, ACCxPOD_2_, ACCxDISi2_, SC_xDYN_1B, ACCx_PR_1B  
Input time span  24 h  
Spatial representation  Threedimensional time series along satellite orbit  
Time representation  UTC  
Units  m/s^{2 }for accelerometer biases, dimensionless for scale factors  
Resolution  64 bit double precision floating point number format  
Uncertainty  0.01 scale factor for flight direction, 10^{7} m/s^{2} for alongtrack bias  
Quality indicator 
Validation report ACCxVAL_2_ Global attribute "DAILY_QUALITY_INDEX" of Type CDF_REAL, which ranges from 1.0 (good data quality) to 5.0 (bad data quality) 

Data volume  15 MB per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with corrected and calibrated accelerations from the accelerometer, all corrections and calibration parameters, and flags; sampling rate is 1 Hz (accelerations are at original measurement epochs)  
Output time span  1 day  
Update rate  3 months  
Latency  1 month  
Notes 
All accelerations are provided in the CRF (xdirection is roughly alongtrack, ydirection is roughly crosstrack, zdirection is roughly nadir)
Calibration was performed against nongravitational accelerations from POD that are contained in product ACCxPOD_2_ Preliminary bias will be replaced by final bias in aerodynamic accelerations in product ACCx_AE_2_ 
⇒ L2 Cat1: ACCxVAL_2_
Product identifier  ACCxVAL_2_ 
Definition  Validation report for measured, modeled and POD accelerations ACCxCAL_2_, ACCxDISi2_ 
Input data  ACCxDISi2_, ACCxCAL_2_, ACCxPOD_2_, SC_xDYN_1B_, ACCx_PR_1B_, MODx_SC_1B_ 
Input time span  Variable 
Data volume  – 10 MB / day 
Output data  
Output time span  Variable 
Update rate  3 months 
Latency  1 month 
Magnetic Forcing of the Upper Atmosphere
⇒ L2 Cat1: ACCx_AE_2_
Product identifier  ACCx_AE_2_  
Definition  Time series of calibrated accelerometer data, preprocessed to represent external nongravitational forces and aerodynamic accelerations  
Input data  SC_xDYN_1B, STRxATT_1B, SP3xCOM_2_, ACCxCAL_2_, ACCxPOD_2_, AUX_F10_2_, AUX_KP__2_, External data from IERS  
Input time span  24 hr  
Spatial representation  Timeseries along satellite track, altitude (m), latitude (deg), longitude (deg) and local solar time (hours) available based on MODX_SC_1B  
Time representation  UTC (seconds – s), nominally with 10 s time step  
Units  nm/s^{2} for accelerations, s for time, m for altitude, degrees for latitude, longitude, hours for local solar time  
Resolution  64 bit double precision floating point number format  
Uncertainty  N/A  
Quality indicator  Validation report TDAxVAL_2_  
Data volume  < 10 Mbyte per satellite per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  24 hr  
Update rate  1 day  
Latency  21 days  
Notes  The applied accelerometer bias and scale factors are available in the metadata. 
⇒ L2 Cat1: DNSxPOD_2_
Product identifier  DNSxPOD_2_  
Definition  Thermospheric density at the satellite location along with auxiliary parameters (altitude, latitude, longitude and local solar time). Derived from nongravitational accelerations based on precise orbit determination data only (ACCxPOD_2_)  
Input data  MODx_SC_1B, STRxATT_1B, SC_xDYN_1B, ACCx_FMi2_, GPSx_RO_1B, ACCxPOD_2_  
Input time span  24 hr  
Spatial representation  Timeseries along satellite track, altitude (m), latitude (deg), longitude (deg) and local solar time (hours) available based on MODx_SC_1B  
Time representation  UUTC (seconds – s), nominally with 30 s time step, as well as orbital averages  
Units  kg/m^{3} for density  
Resolution  64 bit double precision floating point number format  
Uncertainty  30% of variance from models for neutral density  
Quality indicator  Validation report DNSxVAL_2_  
Data volume  < 160 Kbyte per satellite per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  24 hr  
Update rate  1 day  
Latency  21 days  
Notes 
The density data is derived from the ACCxPOD nongravitational acceleration component along the spacecraft Xaxis. The following processing steps have been performed:  Modelled radiation pressure accelerations have been subtracted from the full nongravitational accelerations, to arrive at aerodynamic accelerations. Because the Kalman filter approach results in a smoothed representation of true accelerations, the radiation pressure model output has been smoothed as well, in order to avoid density jump artefacts at eclipse transitions.  The resulting aerodynamic accelerations are converted into densities, using an aerodynamic model based on a panelised representation of the satellite. The gassurface interaction is based on diffuse reflection, and an energy accommodation coefficient of 0.93 is used.  The densities are multiplied by a factor of 1.32, to compensate for the observed difference in scale between the panelised aerodynamic model, and an aerodynamic model based on a more accurate representation of the geometry of the Swarm satellites. The more accurate model will be implemented in a future updated version of the data.  The density_orbitmean field contains the mean density, taken over one orbital period, for each time step.The orbital period in seconds is provided as metadata in the CDF file. At high altitude and low solar activity, the errors inherent in the radiation pressure model and acceleration determination using GPS data can become significant compared to the magnitude of the acceleration signal. This can result in large density errors and even negative densities. Users are advised to use the orbit mean densities in those conditions. 
⇒ L2 Cat1: DNSxACC_2_
Product identifier  DNSxACC_2_  
Definition  Thermospheric density at the satellite location  
Input data  STRxATT_1B, SC_xDYN_1B, ACCx_AE_2_, SP3_COM__2, AUX_IER_2_, AUX_AER_2_, AUX_F10_2_, AUX_KP__2_, External data from IERS  
Input time span  24 hr  
Spatial representation  Timeseries along satellite track, altitude (m), latitude (deg), longitude (deg) and local solar time (hours) available based on MODX_SC_1B  
Time representation  UTC (seconds – s), nominally with 10 s time step  
Units  kg/m^{3} for density, m/s for wind speed  
Resolution  64 bit double precision floating point number format  
Uncertainty  30% of variance from models for neutral density  
Quality indicator  Validation report TDAxVAL_2_  
Data volume  < 15 Mbyte per satellite per day  
Data format 
CDF


Output data  CDF file with time series  
Output time span  24 hr  
Update rate  1 day  
Latency  21 days  
Notes 
Processing Chains of Level 2 Products
Figure 1: L2 chain
Figure 2: L2 processing chains which result in magnetic L2 products
Figure 3: L2 processing chains that result in precise orbits and thermosphere L2 products
Figure 4: L2 processing chains related to the Earth environment and space weather (Cat2 products)
Sentinels monitor converging ice cracks
14 March 2019
The Copernicus Sentinel1 radar mission shows how cracks cutting across Antarctica's Brunt ice shelf are on course to truncate the shelf and release an iceberg about the size of Greater London – it's just a matter of time.
The Brunt ice shelf is an area of floating ice bordering the Coats Land coast in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica.
Using radar images from the Copernicus Sentinel1 mission the animation shows two lengthening fractures: a large chasm running northwards and a split, dubbed Halloween Crack, that has been extending eastwards since October 2016. They are now only separated by a few kilometres.Halloween Crack runs from an area known as McDonald Ice Rumples, which is where the underside of the otherwise floating ice sheet is grounded on the shallow seabed. This pinning point slows the flow of ice and crumples the ice surface into waves.
Bering in dire straits
14 March 2019
The Bering Strait is a sea passage that separates Russia and Alaska. It is usually covered with sea ice at this time of year – but as this image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel1 mission on 7 March 2019 shows, it is virtually icefree.
The Bering Strait is a narrow passage  around 80 km wide  connecting the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. The few patches of sea ice are shown in lightblue colours.
The extent of sea ice in the Bering Sea has dropped lower than it has been since written records began in 1850, and is most likely because of warm air and water temperatures. On average, the fluctuating sea ice in this region increases until early April, depending on wind and wave movement.
According to the National Snow & Ice Data Center, between 27 January to 3 March 2019, seaice extent decreased from 566 000 sq km to 193 000 sq km. Sea ice was also exceptionally low last year, but it has been reported that this March the extent of sea ice is the lowest in the 40year satellite record.
To travel between Arctic and Pacific, marine traffic passes through the Bering Strait. Owing to the reduction of ice in the region, traffic has increased significantly.
The Copernicus Sentinel1 satellites provide images to generate maps of seaice conditions for safe passage in the busy Arctic waters, as well as distinguish between thinner, more navigable firstyear ice and thicker, more hazardous ice. Each satellite carries an advanced radar instrument to image Earth's surface through cloud and rain, regardless of whether it is day or night.
GOCE EGG L1b reprocessed data published
15 March 2019
The GOCE Gravity Gradiometer L1b data have been reprocessed and published on the GOCE Virtual Archive.
Details on the updated algorithm and the impact on the L1b data quality can be found in the following presentation.
The GOCE L2 data, including the gravity field models, are currently being regenerated and will be available in Q2 2019.
Swarm Alpha and Charlie: STR instruments set at 2 Hz rate from December 2018
15 March 2019
We would like to inform Swarm users that from 12 December 2018, at 13:34:56 UTC and 18 December 2018, at 12:43:30 UTC, the attitude information of the Star Tracker instruments on board the Swarm Alpha and Charlie satellites, respectively, are provided at 2 Hz rate, instead of the previous 1 Hz.
This change required an update in the Level 1b processing of the rotation angles from the three Camera Head Unit (CHU) reference frames to Star Tracker Common Reference Frame. This update was deployed into operations on 6 March 2019.
To benefit from this rotation update, all the Swarm Alpha L1B data from 12/12/2018 to 02/03/2019 and Swarm Charlie L1B data from 18/12/2018 to 02/03/2019 were regenerated and are now available on the Swarm FTP server with increased File Counter.
The effect of this update is a difference of no more than 2 nT in the B_NEC (NorthEarthCenter frame) with respect to data available before the update.
7th CryoSat Quality Working group Meeting  Final Report
20 March 2019
The 7th CryoSat Quality Working Group (QWG) meeting was held at ESA/ESRIN from 26  28 November 2018. The QWG#7 was structured around 7 main sessions and involved 43 participants from different operational and research institutes including both CryoSat Expert Support Laboratory, QC and Cal/Val teams, altimetry experts and multithematic scientists.
The QWG#7 topics addressed both the data quality aspect of operational ice and ocean L1/L2 products, the results from Cal/Val Campaigns as well as the evolutions of core PDGS products and strategic implementation of future CryoTEMPO. The latest results about the CryoSat Ocean Processor BaselineC and Ice BaselineD Test Data Sets over the ice sheet and ice caps, SeaIce and Inland areas were also discussed.
These points and much more are addressed in the QWG#7 presentations and the Summary and Recommendation Report which is now available to download.
Taking gravity from strength to strength
20 March 2019
Ten years ago, ESA launched one of its most innovative satellites. GOCE spent four years measuring a fundamental force of nature: gravity. This extraordinary mission not only yielded new insights into our gravity field, but led to some amazing discoveries about our planet, from deep below the surface to high up in the atmosphere and beyond. And, this remarkable mission continues to realise new science today.
Because of factors such as the planet's rotation, the position of mountains and ocean trenches and different densities in materials in Earth's interior, the force of gravity at Earth's surface varies from place to place.
Mapping these differences is important for measuring ocean circulation, sealevel change and for understanding otherwise hidden processes occurring deep inside the planet, for example.
Copernicus Sentinel1 maps floods in wake of Idai
20 March 2019
As millions of people in Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe struggle to cope with the aftermath of what could be the southern hemisphere's worst storm, Copernicus Sentinel1 is one of the satellite missions being used to map flooded areas to help relief efforts.
Cyclone Idai swept through this part of southeast Africa over the last few days, leaving devastation in its wake. Thousands of people have died and houses, roads and croplands are under water.
It is currently thought that well over two million people in the three countries have been affected, but the extent of destruction is still unfolding.
Copernicus Sentinel1 maps floods in wake of Idai
20 March 2019
As millions of people in Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe struggle to cope with the aftermath of what could be the southern hemisphere's worst storm, Copernicus Sentinel1 is one of the satellite missions being used to map flooded areas to help relief efforts.
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Back to Daily Performance Reports
The following performance reports are available:
Back to Daily Performance Reports
The following performance reports are available: