Swarm Bravo: Scalar magnetic field data not available from 17 to 22 March 2020
31 March 2020
Due to an issue detected in the Swarm L1B data processing chain, the magnetic field intensity derived from the ASM instrument and stored in MAGx_LR_1B and MAGx_CA_1B products for Swarm Bravo is set to zero from 17 to 22 March 2020. This data gap will be recovered soon.
SMOS data quality reports and technical notes, data verification reports, animated maps for both operational (OPER) and reprocessed (REPR) dataset are available on this page.
The SMOS Monthly Quality report for operational (OPER) dataset provides:
- summary of the main mission events occurred at flight segment and ground segment impacting the data quality during the reporting period
- long-term analysis of the evolution of the instrument calibration parameters
- processors and auxiliary files configuration updates
- product quality disclaimers
The SMOS Data Quality Control report for reprocessed (REPR) dataset provides:
- summary of the Data Quality Control analysis performed on the reprocessed dataset
- long-term analysis of the evolution of selected quality control indicators
- detailed information regarding data gaps and data degradation into the reprocessed dataset
- product quality disclaimers
The SMOS Data Verification report for reprocessed (REPR) dataset provides:
- summary of the results obtained by the Expert Support laboratories to verify the quality of the SMOS level 2 data
To access the reports and the animated maps see the links in the following tables:
|SMOS Monthly Quality Reports|
|SMOS Mission Reprocessing Reports for the products baseline V6|
|Data Quality Control Reports||Data Verification Reports|
|L1 Products||L1 V620 QC|
|L2 Sea Surface Salinity Product||L2 OS V622 QC||L2 OS V622|
|L2 OS V662 QC||L2 OS V662|
|L2 Soil Moisture Product||L2 SM V620 QC||L2 SM V620|
|L2 SM V650 QC|
The brightness temperature maps for Land and Sea surface provide an overview of the average weekly signal sensed by SMOS. The maps are derived from the level 1 browse products and are computed for selected Stokes parameters at ascending and descending passes. The data in the maps are not filtered by RFI and other anomalies therefore strong signal corruption can be observed for some period, in some region over the Earth surface. The maps are generated for quality control purposes mainly to check the data coverage and the long term brightness temperature value consistency.
To access the SMOS level 1 maps see the links in the following table:
SMOS Brightness Temperature weekly maps - Land Surface
(since January 2010 onwards)
SMOS Brightness Temperature weekly maps - Sea Surface
(since January 2010 onwards)
The soil moisture maps provide an overview of the average weekly soil moisture retrieved from SMOS level 1 brightness temperature. The maps are derived from the level 2 SM products and are computed for ascending and descending passes. The level 1 measurements contaminated by the RFI are filtered out by the level 2 processor. For that reason the data coverage can be impacted in the area affected by permanent RFI sources. The soil moisture retrieval is also impacted by frozen / thawing soil therefore the global coverage of soil moisture data has a seasonal evolution as shown in the maps. The maps are generated for quality control purposes mainly to check the data coverage and the long term soil moisture value consistency.
To access the SMOS level 2 soil moisture maps see the links in the following table:
The sea surface salinity maps provide an overview of the average weekly sea surface salinity retrieved from SMOS level 1 brightness temperature. The maps are derived from the level 2 OS products and are computed for ascending and descending passes. The level 1 measurements contaminated by the RFI, and instrument anomalies are filtered out by the level 2 processor. The maps show only data retrieved with good quality for the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) retrieved with and without Land-Sea contamination correction and SSS anomaly based on WOA-2009 referred to Land-Sea corrected SSS. The maps are generated for quality control purposes mainly to check the data coverage and the long term sea surface salinity values consistency.
To access the SMOS level 2 sea surface salinity maps see the links in the following table:
|SMOS Sea Surface Salinity weekly maps|
|Ascending||Salinity LSC||Salinity||Salinity LSC anomaly|
|Descending||Salinity LSC||Salinity||Salinity LSC anomaly|
New life for Landsat historical data
30 March 2020
45 years of data, more than 1.8 million images, these are the numbers of an adventure started 48 years ago with the launch of the first Landsat satellite. Today, the entire Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) ESA dataset has been processed with improved algorithms, so as to offer top quality data to the user community.
Landsat is the pioneering US land remote sensing satellite program, which has provided a continuous supply of synoptic, repetitive, multispectral data of Earth's land surfaces since 1972. Over the years, a large international user community evolved along with the Landsat series.
The programme opened entirely new fields of research, providing insights into geologic, agricultural, and land-use surveys, eventually leading to new paths of resource exploration - in all, for a better understanding of our planet's system.
The primary mission objective was to monitor Earth's resources to achieve periodic and complete coverage of the United States via multispectral, high spatial resolution images of solar radiation reflected from Earth's surface.
Secondary objectives included acquisition of multispectral images over important major land masses other than the United States, at least once per season, and the relay of data acquired by International ground stations from the Landsat satellites to a central analysis facility, to support the modelling of Earth resource oriented processes.
The success of the Landsat programme stimulated new approaches to data analysis and gave impetus to new sensor designs: for instance, the Copernicus Sentinel-2 sensor was designed in order to keep full compatibility with this fundamental dataset and expand it in terms of spatial and frequency resolutions.
From 1975, ESA began with its own ground systems, to acquire, process and archive data from Landsat, under the Earthnet program. Starting with a single satellite ground station, located in Fucino (Italy), the acquisition capability was increased in the following years with Kiruna (Sweden), Maspalomas (Canary Islands – Spain), Matera (Italy) and Neustrelitz (Germany). The resulting dataset of the seven Landsat satellites, with over 1.8 million scenes, is now fully available under Earthnet's Third Party Missions (TPM).
As part of the International Ground Station (IGS) community, ESA is continuously maintaining efforts to distribute new Landsat 8 data.
ESA's 45 years worth of Landsat historical data observed over Continental Europe, African regions and the Arctic has become massive.
Major efforts have been undertaken to improve processing and then produce the most up to date Level-1 products for the community.
The Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instrument on board the Landsat 1 to 5 satellites was built by SBRC (Santa Barbara Research Center) of Hughes Aircraft Company in Goleta, CA.
The objective of MSS was to provide repetitive, daytime acquisition of high-resolution, multispectral data of Earth's surface on a global basis, and to demonstrate that remote sensing from space is a feasible and practical approach, to efficiently manage Earth's resources.
MSS is an opto-mechanical scanning instrument (whiskbroom technique, unidirectional operation) consisting of a double reflector-type telescope, scanning mirror, filters, detectors, and associated electronics. The MSS instrument had a spatial resolution of approximately 79 metres with four bands ranging from the visible green to the Near Infra-Red (NIR).
This is the first time that ESA's Landsat MSS collection (data acquired over the visibility masks of Fucino, Kiruna and Maspalomas from 1975 to 1999) has been systematically processed. This processing started some years ago, and it highlighted and made it possible to understand issues that for years had affected the data, but had never been correlated with an on-request processing scheme. By systematically producing all of the scenes of a single satellite pass, the information of the adjacent scenes has been used to improve the geometry of partially clouded scenes.
The analysis of Level-0 data revealed that multispectral scanner calibration was not optimal, leading to saturation in bright areas (ice/snow and desert). For these regions, the calibration coefficients were revised and most data are now almost free from saturation.
A quality information map, compatible with the one developed by USGS for Landsat TM data, is now attached to Level-1 MSS products, indicating problematic, cloudy, water and saturated pixels.
The result is that MSS data are now fully comparable with the data coming from the more modern instruments carried on board of the recent Landsat missions, TM (Landsat 5), ETM+ (Landsat 7) and OLI/TIRS (Landsat 8) and even with Copernicus Senitnel-2.
Andrea Schedid, Third Party Missions Operation Coordination Manager, states, "These improved MSS data are allowing users to benefit from a huge range of images, which ensure a better comparison of older data to recent ones, thus bringing Earth observation to a new level."
Roberto Biasutti, Payload Data Ground Segment Operational Manager, adds, "This incredible collection is expanding the remote sensing data availability over European and North African countries as far as 1975: 45 years of data continuity and the adventure is continuing with Landsat and Copernicus Sentinel-2 satellites series—Amazing!"
Title: Snow/Ice equilibrium line
Description: The new Landsat MSS collection allows to perform change detection studies on a long period observation: in this case the status of one of the most famous Alps glaciers. We can see how the equilibrium snow/ice line of Aletsch glacier (Switzerland) changed in the last 40 years.
Copyright: © ESA 1975-2017, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016)/ Movie produced by ESA-IDEAS+
Title: Land changes over Toulouse
Description: This animation features the urban growth, forest and agricultural practice changes over Toulouse, France, from 1975 to 2017 with the MSS instrument of the Landsat satellites.
Copyright: © ESA 1975-2017 Movie produced by ESA-IDEAS+