PRISMA (Hyperspectral Precursor and Application Mission)
PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is a medium-resolution hyperspectral imaging mission of the Italian Space Agency ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) under development as of 2008. It is a follow-on project of the previously started HypSEO (Hyperspectral Satellite for Earth Observation) program whose phase B was completed in 2002 and then discontinued. - The PRISMA project is conceived as a pre-operational and technology demonstrator mission, focused on the development and delivery of hyperspectral products and the qualification of the hyperspectral payload in space. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)
PRISMA will focus on the needs of the Italian institutional and research entities. The mission objectives are:
• to develop a small satellite mission entirely in Italy for monitoring of natural resources and atmospheric characteristics (information on land cover and crop status, pollution quality of inland waters, status of coastal zones and the Mediterranean Sea, soil mixture and carbon cycle), taking advantage of the previous developments carried out by ASI
• to provide the standard data products with short delay periods after reception to the scientific community to address the various selected applications, such as those related to quality and protection of the environment, sustainable development, climate change, etc.
• to demonstrate new technologies in orbit.
The overall objective is to provide a global observation capability - the specific areas of interest to be covered are Europe and the Mediterranean region.
The industrial core team is formed by Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS), Selex Galileo (SG) and Rheinmetall Italia (RhI), and also includes all the key national industries which have already acquired specific knowhow and expertise. ASI awarded the prime contract to CGS in Dec. 2007.
The following tasks are assigned to the core team:
• CGS: Responsible for project management, contract management and system engineering, both for space segment and ground segment, design, development and integration of the platform, for system AIV (Assembly, Integration and Verification) activities, satellite EGSE, support to launcher interface. In the frame of the Ground Segment, CGS is responsible of the overall data processing in the IDHS (Instrument Data Handling System) of the Level 2 standard products development.
• SG: Responsible for design, development, integration, test and calibration of the complete hyperspectral instrument, PAN camera and of its test equipment [MGSE (Mechanical Ground Support Equipment), EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment) and OGSE (Optical Ground Support Equipment)]. For what concern the platform, SG will also supply solar panels, AA-STR (APS Autonomous Star Tracker) devices for attitude determination and the on-board PCDU (Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit). In the frame of the Ground Segment, GA will be responsible for the overall Data Processing in the IDHS with direct responsibility of level 0 and level 1 standard products development.
• RHI: responsible for thermo-mechanical engineering of the satellite, development and integration of the structure and thermal subsystem of the platform, for platform and payload structural model, for launcher interface, for satellite thermo-mechanical AIV and relevant environmental qualification, for satellite MGSE and for launch campaign. RHI will also supply the solar panel mechanical substrate.
The system is based on a minisatellite bus of MITA heritage and is being developed at Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA of Milano, Italy (CGS). The PRISMA platform represents a significant evolution of the MITA/AGILE platform developed as standard Italian small satellites platform (launch of AGILE on April 23, 2007). The main PRISMA improvements are:
• Enhanced attitude control system with pointing agility. A spacecraft body pointing capability of ±14.7º (off-nadir) is provided in cross-track
• Propulsion subsystem for orbit control and final disposal
The main performance features are:
• Attitude determination: 0.015º with 3-axis stabilization
• Pointing accuracy: 0.07º in all 3 axes
• Orbit determination: 20 m (onboard) -> image geolocation: 168 m.
Figure 1: Illustration of the PRISMA spacecraft layout (image credit: Carlo Gavazzi Space)
OBDH (On Board Data Handling) subsystem: OBDH is in charge of on board telemetry and telecommand management, ground generated commands execution, AOCS, power management, monitoring of main platform H/K parameters, payload monitoring and image downloading during ground contacts.
EPS (Electrical Power Subsystem): Power is provided by fixed solar panels and by two Lithium-Ion battery packs during eclipse periods and during the attitude acquisition phase. The electronics to convert and distribute the power to the satellite users is included in the PCDU (Power Control and Distribution Unit and managed by the OBDH.
• 2 star sensors and 6 gyroscopes for accurate attitude determination
• 2 magnetometers and 24 sun presence sensors for coarse attitude determination
• 2 GPS receivers for position and velocity determination.
The actuators are:
• 4 reaction wheels placed in a pyramidal configuration and used for fine attitude pointings
• 3 magnetic torquers for coarse attitude pointings and reaction wheel desaturation
• 2 thrusters for orbital maneuvers.
The sensor measurements are given as input to the navigation block which is in charge of estimating the current system state. Merging this information with guidance profiles, control algorithms derive actuators commands.
Guidance: Different guidance schemes have been implemented to support the different mission phases. Guidance profiles can be divided in the following categories:
- 1-axis sun-pointing guidance, used in Safe mode
- 3-axes spin-phased sun-pointing guidance, used in standby mode
- Ground-loaded 3-axes guidance, used in ground guided and orbit control modes
- Autonomous or ground loaded guidance.
In the 1-axis/3-axes sun-pointing guidance, the axis normal to solar panels is kept aligned with the sun direction. The 3-axes spin-phased sun-pointing guidance is specifically designed for thermal control in order to keep the payload radiator far away from Earth while spinning the satellite around the solar panel axes.
Image acquisition, data download, orbit correction manoeuvre, flat-field pointing calibrations and moon pointing calibration require leaving the sun pointing attitude and follow guidance profiles uploaded from the ground. PRISMA-I is specifically designed also for this type of maneuver. Typical guidance profiles need to fulfil specific requirements regarding angular acceleration and velocity constraints, sensors occultation, payload radiator/optics constraints, battery consumption, Earth rotation compensation and X-band antenna pointings.
Figure 2: Schematic view of the PRISMA-1 AOCS architechture (image credit: TAS)
Navigation: Navigation is organized in a series of sub-functions, which, based on a subset of the available sensors, output the estimated satellite state. Several estimators are implemented in the navigation filter. Data from PRISMA-I sensors are collected and elaborated by different on board estimators in order to have coarse and fine estimates of the satellite state in terms of rates, accelerations, position, attitude, etc. The strategy for estimator selection is based on sensors availability and the mission phase. Different estimation performance are required depending on the AOCS control mode actually in use. The principal navigation features needed in the PRISMA-I AOCS are:
- Attitude/rate coarse estimation functions
- Attitude/rate fine estimation functions
- Kalman filter for accurate state estimation from star sensor and gyroscopes measures
- Sun propagator, orbit propagator and Earth magnetic field model to support navigation filter.
The coarse rate estimation functions are based on Sun presence sensors and magnetometers measures, the simplest and most reliable set of available sensors. The coarse attitude estimation is performed merging these data with the information given by the on board sun propagator and Earth magnetic field propagator. - Fine rate and attitude estimates are obtained merging star sensors and gyroscopes measures in order to continuously provide accurate attitude information also in case of star sensors blinding or invalid measures.
AOCS control: The control function is devoted to the calculation of the control actions commanded to actuators. The controller is able to support the following functionalities:
- Sun pointing for power generation and safe state
- Fine nadir pointing for image acquisition
- Fine moon pointing for payload calibration
- Fast maneuvers from the sun to other pointings fulfilling various geometric constraints
- Orbital maneuvers.
AOCS performance in terms of pointing accuracy and maneuver execution time: The AOCS guarantees an AKE (Absolute Knowledge Error) of < 12 arcsec (single axis, 3σ) and an APE (Absulute Performance Error) of < 60 arcsec (single axis, 3σ).
The agile spacecraft features a body-pointing capability of ±30º in cross-track. Roll maneuvers will be performed to provide the satellite relook capability, and ±5° pitch maneuvers may be performed for glint avoidance.
Thermal control: The satellite thermal control is mainly passive and it is realized by placing the most dissipating devices on radiating surfaces. Dedicated thermal control will be implemented for the Li-Ion battery, for the payload detectors and for the propulsion subsystem.
Structure: The spacecraft structure consists of a frame made of tubes and reinforcing side panels made up by an Al-Al honeycomb structure which supports internal subsystem hardware. The spacecraft dimensions are: 1751 x 1545 x 3400 (L x W x H) mm. The spacecraft launch mass is < 550 kg, power consumption = 350 W (average) and 720 W (max). The mission design life is 5 years.
Figure 3: Block diagram of the satellite architecture (image credit: Carlo Gavazzi Space)
Orbit: Sun-synchronous circular, altitude = 614 km, inclination = 98.19º, period ~ 99 minutes, orbit repeat cycle = 29 days and relook capability of 7 days with roll maneuver, LTDN (Local Time of equator crossing on Descending Node) = 10:30 hours.
Launch: A launch of the PRISMA spacecraft is planned for late 2013 on a Vega launch vehicle (baseline) from Kourou.
RF communications: The S-band is used for TT&C communications. The X-band is used for the downlink of the payload data. The PDHT (Payload Data Handling & Transmission) subsystem, of COSMO-SkyMed heritage, is dedicated to the processing of the payload data for the X-band downlink.
Table 1: Main characteristics of the PDHT
Figure 4: Overview of the PDHT architecture (image credit: Thales Alenia Space)
The satellite will primarily operate in a “user driven” targeting mode with a re-targeting period of < 7 days and a response time of < 14 days. To fill the system capacity, a “data driven” background mission mode will be considered as well.
Sensor complement: (PRISMA)
PRISMA (the name of the mission and of the sensor are identical) is an advanced hyperspectral instrument including a panchromatic camera at medium resolution. SG (Selex Galileo) of Campi Bisenzio, Italy, is the prime contractor for the design and development of the PRISMA instrument. The design is based on a pushbroom type observation concept providing hyperspectral imagery (~ 250 bands) at a spatial resolution of 30 m on a swath of 30 km. The spectral resolution is better than 12 nm in a spectral range of 400-2500 nm (VNIR and SWIR regions). In parallel, Pan (Panchromatic) imagery is provided at a spatial resolution of 5 m; the Pan data is co-registered with the Hyp (Hyperspectral) data to permit testing of image fusion techniques. 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)
The PRISMA instrument is based on a prism spectrometer concept and comprised of the units: the Hyp/Pan, optical head and the main electronics box. The physical separation of the units provides a better mass distribution on the spacecraft bus. The common telescope of the Hyp/Pan and optical head units is collecting the incoming radiation of both channels, which is dispersed by two spectrometers; the photons are converted to electrons by suitable detectors, then the electrical signals are amplified and converted into a digital data stream.
The electronics box has the function to control the instrument and to handle the imagery bit stream according to agreed-on protocols. The cooling of the SWIR detector array is provided by means of a cold space facing passive radiator.
Figure 5: Hyp/Pan optical head illustration (2 views) of the PRISMA instrument (image credit: Selex Galileo)
Table 2: Overview of PRISMA instrument parameters
Figure 6: Schematic block diagram of the PRISMA instrument (image credit: Selex Galileo)
Optical design: The optical system consists of a common telescope a double band spectrometer, operating in VNIR and SWIR bands, and a panchromatic camera. The telescope configuration consists of a TMA (Three Mirror Anastigmat) implementation to assure excellent optical quality with a minimum number of optical elements. The telescope features three aspherical mirrors with an entrance aperture of 210 mm and an effective focal length of 695 mm. The entrance pupil diameter choice allows the system to meet the high required SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) with an f/number selection to achieve a high geometrical performance in terms of smile effect, keystone effect, and co-registration. The telescope has a diffraction-limited MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) an energy within a 30 x 30 µm reference pixel of 80%.
Figure 7: Block diagram of the optics unit (image credit: Selex Galileo)
Figure 8: Schematic view of the telescope configuration (image credit: Selex Galileo)
The stray light and ghost image effects in the telescope are being controlled by:
• internal baffling which prevents light from reaching the slit outside the nominal path
• conventional blacking of most internal structure surfaces.
An external baffle is implemented to contribute to the reduction of thermal radiant inputs to the telescope optics. A slit common to the VNIR and SWIR spectrometers (identical FOVs) is placed in the focal plane of the telescope. The separation between the VNIR and SWIR optical path is realized with a DBS (Dichroic Beam Splitter) to improve the co-registration requirement.
The mechanical design of the instrument makes use of the following guidelines/design drivers:
• the three optical channels (VNIR, SWIR, Pan) must be spaced out as far as possible and located on the instrument's side facing cold space
• the proximity electronics must be kept close to the FPAs (Focal Plane Assembly) to minimize the lengths of the flex cables
• the most relevant masses must be located as close as possible to the mechanical interface between the instrument and the bus
• the instrument entrance port has to be closed to avoid contamination of the internal optics.
The optical bench supporting the optics and the FPAs is realized in aluminum alloy to reduce the instrument mass.
The SWIR detector cooling is realized using a cold space facing radiator. The thermal design of the instrument is based on an architecture with the following characteristics:
- The SWIR detector is cooled to a temperature range of 160-180 K
- The VNIR detector temperature is kept in the range of 240-250 K
- The heat fluxes from the electronic warm parts to the cold zones of the instrument are reduced to a minimum
- The optics components, contained in an insulated optical bench, are confined to a relatively tight temperature range of 2-4º C by dedicated thermal controls to provide a good thermo-mechanical stability
- Specific part of the spectrometer, like the FPA and its cold shield, are positioned close to the radiator to permit a good passive system efficiency
- The optical subsystems have to be maintained thermally insulated from the supporting structure, in particular from the parts of the colder temperature range.
Spectrometer: The spectrometer design implements a prism solution and a patented concept of Selex Galileo. The use of refractive prisms, optimized for each band, allows a much higher efficiency and lower polarization sensitivity than grating implementations. In this way it is possible to achieve the required SNR with a relatively small telescope entrance pupil diameter, offering an advantage in size and mass of the instrument.
The overall instrument spectral radiation (400-2505 nm) is split into two channels (VNIR and SWIR), adopting two different focal plane arrays. The VNIR covers the range (400 -1010 nm) with 66 spectral bands, while the SWIR channel range is (920-2505 nm) with 171 bands. Due to the adopted optical design, the spectral dispersion is not constant with wavelength.
The spectral dispersion is achieved by prisms placed in parallel beams, designed to achieve the required high optical quality in terms of PSF (Point Spread Function), smile, and keystone effects. The smile and keystone effects of the spectrometer are well corrected. The errors are contained within 10% of the pixel, for both of the VNIR and SWIR detector plane arrays. The optical design provides a transparency to reach the required SNR for a typical scenario of 30% reflectance at 30º SZA (Sun Zenith Angle) at TOA for the mid-latitude summer.
Figure 9: Optical layout of the VNIR and SWIR spectrometers (image credit: Selex Galileo)
Panchromatic channel: The Pan channel is obtained by separating the main beam coming from the TMA telescope by an in-field separation technique complemented by a second slit parallel to the one of the spectrometers. The Pan image is obtained using a three mirror optical relay that is diffraction-limited for wavelengths > 400 nm.
The field separation effect is a constant offset (in terms of geo-location) between hyperspectral and panchromatic images, which will be taken into account by the image processing algorithms, when co-registering the hyperspectral and panchromatic images. The distance between the two fields will be kept minimal, taking into account:
• mechanical accommodation, which shall limit the minimum feasible physical distance on the focal plane
• temporal co-registration of the Hyp/Pan images, i.e. having two fields means acquiring Hyp and Pan images of the same zone at different times.
The selected layout of the panchromatic unit is a modified Offner configuration (1.3x) with a corrector objective. A folding mirror is placed before the TMA image plane in order to fold the optical path of the rays towards an available, unused space of the optical bench.
The optical layout of the Pan channel comprises three spherical mirrors, two of them decentred, two folding mirrors, and three lenses in fused silica. The mirrors of the TMA telescope and Pan relay are being realized using Schott Zerodur glass, hollowing out the back surfaces to reduce the mass up to 50%.
The Pan detector is a linear array with 6000 pixels and a pitch of 6.5 µm.
Figure 10: Optical layout of the Pan camera (image credit: Selex Galileo)
The optical axis of the Pan device is slightly tilted with respect to that of the spectrometer; the off-axis separation between the spectrometer and the Pan device is about 2.84 mm, which produces a field separation on ground of < 3 km. This is the optimum distance compliant with mechanical and manufacturing constraints to reduce the field separation on the ground to a minimum.
The Pan device is optimized over the entire visible spectral range (0.4 – 0.7 µm). The Nyquist frequency is 77 cy/mm (6.5 µm is the pixel size); the optical quality of the Pan device is excellent over the full spectral range.
Figure 11: Internal view of the PRISMA architecture (image credit: Selex Galileo)
The in-flight ICU (Internal Calibration Unit) is designed to allow the support of absolute and relative radiometric calibrations and spectral calibrations. The ICU utilizes a very compact optical path, able to image the sunlight through a dedicated solar entrance port via an internal diffuser, seen during the calibration activity by the primary mirror of the TMA telescope. The calibration unit consists of a solar port cover mechanism, filters and spectral lamps. Dark calibration is implemented by means of a lightweight shutter placed in front of the optical slit.
The ICU input spectral radiance for calibration is generated by the Sun (ICU_S mode) or by Internal Sources (ICU_IS mode), through a dedicated optical path. The objective of the ICU is the illumination of the whole instrument pupil and FOV by the reference radiation passing through the same optical path of the Earth-observed signal: in fact a calibration dedicated optical path (both for the sun and for the internal sources) is realized to impinge the back surface of the main port cover. This is provided with a metallic diffuser, that allows a stationary illumination directly on the telescope primary mirror, filling the whole entrance pupil of the telescope.
Dark frames are periodically acquired by closing the shutter located at the spectrometer entrance slit, allowing the offset background subtraction from the ICU internal sources.
Figure 12: Opto-mechanical accommodation and optical paths of the ICU (image credit: Selex Galileo)
Table 3: Overview of the ICU objectives
ICU_S mode: During sun calibration, the sun port cover shall be opened for the time strictly needed to perform the acquisition. The solar radiation enters into the instrument through the sun port, passes a transmission diffuser and then, by means of a flat folding mirror, a dedicated relay optics and the Sun Beam Splitter (optimized to maximize the radiance from the lamp sources), it is redirected towards the internal (back) surface of the main port cover (Figure 13).
ICU_Is mode: ICU unit is provided by radiance calibrated tungsten lamps positioned in dedicated reflecting lamp-housings. The lamp-house aperture supports a transmittance filter having calibrated spectral signatures. The internal calibration sources are composed by two equal groups (main and redundant) of a couple of lamps: one lamp for VNIR and the other for the SWIR channel. The VNIR and SWIR lamps differ on the filter spectral features and on the lamp-housing coating.
Figure 13: Schematic view of the ICU optical paths (image credit: Selex Galileo)
The radiation emitted by the two lamp-housings are combined by means of a dichroic filter (optimized to transmit the VNIR and to reflect the SWIR) radiation. A dedicated beam splitter has the purpose to combine the beams coming from the Main or the redundant group folding it toward the Sun Beam Splitter (this component is exactly the same used for the solar calibration). At the end, the radiation passes through the splitter and illuminates the whole main cover diffuser. The path of the lamp beams is shown in Figure 14.
The internal lamps are DC controlled to obtain the linear intensity variations which can be used to measure the detectors linearity. Moreover, by varying the FPA (Focal Plane Assembly) integration time while maintaining constant source current, the detector time linearity can be measured.
Figure 14: Schematic view of the internal radiation path sources (image credit: Selex Galileo)
In-flight calibration by spacecraft maneuvers: Instrument functionality and/or evaluation/validation calibration checks will be conducted in particular during the commissioning phase and occasionally during the operations phase to dedicated targets/references.
• The moon will be used for absolute radiometric calibration. This requires a pointing maneuver of the spacecraft.
• Flat-field ground target: To perform this calibration activity, the satellite has to perform a rotation around Z axis (nadir axis) so as to orientate the instrument slit parallel to the ground-track direction (nominally a 90º rotation, which shall be maintained with the required accuracy for the calibration session duration only).
• Dedicated ground targets: Ground targets may be employed for geometric spatial or transmittance validation image quality tests.
MEB (Main Electronics Box):
The MEB is installed in the spacecraft providing the following functions:
• Control of the Hyp/Pan optical head
• To interface as RT (Remote Terminal) the OBDH (On-Board Data Handling) subsystem via a MIL-STD-1553 bus for TM/TC
• To interface the PCDU (Power Control and Distribution Unit)
• To interface the PDHT subsystem for science data transmission
• To control the power supply distribution to the Hyp/Pan optical head subsystems.
Figure 15: Block diagram of the MEB (image credit: Selex Galileo)
The MEB uses a redundant sub-assembly architecture and is in charge of controlling the PRISMA instrument. The MEB is physically separated from optical heads and from the proximity electronics: it is accommodated inside bus, fixed on the top plate interface between the spacecraft and the optical head.
The MEB has a mass of 9 kg and a size of 300 mm x 270 mm x 205mm.
The ground segment of the PRISMA mission includes two main elements:
• MPC (Mission Planning and Control) in Fucino, Italy.
• IDHS (Instrument Data Handling System) in Matera, Italy. Dedicated to imaging data acquisition, processing, archiving and distribution (PRISMA user interface). The IHDS data processing function is devoted to generate Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2 products.
Figure 16: The main elements of the ground segment (image credit: CGS)
Figure 17: Overview of the PRISMA mission ground segment (image credit: CGS)
Figure 18: Overview of the IDHS processing system (image credit: CGS)
1) Claudio Galeazzi, Andrea Sacchetti, Andrea Cisbani, Gianni Babini, “The PRISMA Program,” Proceedings of IGARSS 2008 (IEEE International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium), Boston, MA, USA, July 6-11, 2008
3) Andrea Sacchetti, Claudio Galeazzi, Andrea Cisbani, Gianni Babini, “The Italian precursor of an operational hyperspectral imaging mission,” Proceedings of the 7th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation, Berlin, Germany, May 4-7, 2009, IAA-B7-1102, URL of presentation: http://media.dlr.de:8080/erez4/erez?cmd=get&src=os/IAA/archiv7/Presentations/1102%5FIAA%20B7%201102%20Presentation.pdf
4) E. Razzano, G. D. Morea, S. Cipolla, C. Galeazzi, G. N. Varacalli, “Mission Analysis for the PRISMA Earth Observation Satellite,” Proceedings of the 7th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation, Berlin, Germany, May 4-7, 2009, IAA-B7-0216P
5) Cristina Ananasso,Claudio Galeazzi, and the PRISMA project team, “The PRISMA Mission,” Second HyspIRI NASA Decadal Survey Mission Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA, USA, Aug. 11-13, 2009, URL: http://hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov/downloads/2009_Workshop/day3/day3_4._Hyspiri-PRISMA%20presentation.pdf
6) “The PRISMA mission,” ASI, Sept. 4, 2009, URL: http://www.asi.it/files/The%20PRISMA%20mission.pdf
7) Claudio Galeazzi, Paolo Sabatini, Andrea Cisbani, Gianni Babini, “The PRISMA Program,” URL: ftp://lenst.det.unifi.it/pub/LenLar/proceedings/2009/kaconf09/data/session_11/11_1.pdf
8) M. Battilana, F. Longo, G. Varacalli, “PRISMA-1: An agile, high performance AOCS for EO Missions,” Proceedings of GNC 2011, 8th International ESA Conference on Guidance, Navigation & Control Systems, Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary), Czech Republic, June 5-10, 2011
9) Demetrio Labate, Alessandra Barbis, Alessandro Bini, ndrea Cisbani, Iacopo Ficai Veltroni, Lorenzo Giunti, Paolo Marrucci, Claudio Pasqui, Leonardo Tommasi, “Hyperspectral Instrumentation New Development at Selex Galileo,” Proceedings of the 60th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Daejeon, Korea, Oct. 12-16, 2009, IAC-09.B1.1.10
10) C. Galeazzi, R. Carpentiero, V. De Cosmo, L .Garramone, F. Longo, E. Lopinto, G. Varacalli, “The PRISMA System an Pan/Hyp Instrument,” Proceedings of the 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG (Special Interest Group) Workshop, March 16-18, 2009, Tel Aviv, Israel, URL: http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3020%20Galeazzi.pdf
11) D. Labate, M. Ceccherini, A. Cisbani, V. De Cosmo, C. Galeazzi, L. Giunti, M. Melozzi, S. Pieraccini, M. Stagi, “The PRISMA Payload Optomechanical Design - A High Performance Instrument for a new Hyperspectral Mission,” Proceedings of the 59th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Glasgow, Scotland, UK, Sept. 29 to Oct. 3, 2008, IAC-08-B1.3.3
12) G. Preti, A. Cisbani , V. De Cosmo , C. Galeazzi , D. Labate , M. Melozzi, “Hyperspectral Instruments for Earth Observation,” Proceedings of the 7th ICSO (International Conference on Space Optics) 2008, Toulouse, France, Oct. 14-17, 2008
13) Alessandro Barducci, Stefano Baronti, Roberto Carla, Donatella Guzzi, Cinzia Lastri, Paolo Marcoionni, Vanni Nardino, Ivan Pippi, Andrea Garzelli, Luciano Alparone, “Advanced Methodologies for the Analysis, Integration and Optimization of Prisma Mission Products,” Proceedings of the Hyperspectral Workshop 2010, Frascati, Italy, M;arch 17-19, 2010, ESA SP-683
14) Paolo Marrucci, Michele Dami, Lorenzo Giunti,Beatrice Ponticelli, Enrico Fossati, “PRISMA Payload,” Proceedings of the Hyperspectral Workshop 2010, Frascati, Italy, March 17-19, 2010, ESA SP-683
15) Marco Meini, Fabrizio Battazza, Roberto Formaro, Michele Dami, Enrico Fossati, Lorenzo Giunti, “Hyperspectral Payload for PRISMA Mission,” Proceedings of the 4S (Small Satellites Systems and Services) Symposium, Portoroz, Slovenia, June 4-8, 2012
The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates.