KOMPSAT-2 (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-2) / Arirang-2
KOMPSAT-2 (also referred to as Arirang-2 by South Korea) was developed by KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute) to continue the observation program of the KOMPSAT-1 mission. The main mission objectives of the KOMPSAT-2 are to provide a surveillance capability for large-scale disasters by acquiring high-resolution imagery for GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
Figure 1: Artist's rendition of the KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft (image credit: KARI)
The spacecraft design is based on the KOMPSAT-1 heritage making extensive use of existing hardware, software, tools, and facilities; it allows parallel integration of the payload, equipment, and propulsion modules. The KOMPSAT-2 bus structure consists of the five modules: SMS (Structure and Mechanisms Subsystem), TCS (Thermal ConTrol Subsystem), AOCS (Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem), TC&R (Telemetry Command and Ranging) subsystem, EPS (Electrical Power Subsystem), PS (Propulsion Subsystem), and the FSW (Flight Software) element.
The AOCS provides three-axis stabilization (3-axis control with zero momentum bias system) with high accuracy for roll, pitch and yaw pointing. Star trackers, gyro reference assemblies, three-axis magnetometers, magnetic torquers and reaction wheels are used for attitude sensing and control. The pointing accuracy is < 0.025º in roll and pitch, and 0.08º in yaw. The pointing knowledge is 0.020º in roll and pitch, and 0.045º in yaw. The spacecraft platform offers a cross-track body-pointing capability through roll maneuvers (up to ±45º). The propulsion subsystem makes use of re-used components (hydrazine monopropellant thrusters with blowdown pressure-feed system, 73 kg propellant). 7) 8) 9)
Figure 2: Configuration of the KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft (image credit: KARI)
Figure 3: Block diagram of the AOCS with the various elements of the system (image credit: KARI)
A MIL-STD-1553B data bus interfaces most of the spacecraft bus and payload to the onboard computer (monitoring and control). A GPS receiver (Topstar 3000 of Alcatel) provides the onboard time, satellite position and velocity. 10) 11)
The spacecraft mass is 800 kg (including propellant), the S/C size is hexagonal: 1.85 m diameter x 2.6 m in height (6.8 m length in deployed configuration), the power is 955 W (EOL) provided by two solar arrays (GaAs cell technology). A super NiCd battery has a capacity of 30 Ah for eclipse phase support. The S/C design life is three years. EADS Astrium has been selected by KARI to support the platform development and manufacture of KOMPSAT-2.
Figure 4: Schematic illustration of KOMPSAT-2 elements (image credit: KARI)
Figure 5: The KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft in test phase (image credit: KARI)
Figure 6: Illustration of the OBC (image credit: KARI)
Figure 7: Illustration of the transponder (image credit: KARI)
Launch: A launch of the KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft took place on July 28, 2006 with a Rockot-KM launch vehicle of Eurockot Launch Services from Plesetsk, Russia.
Orbit: Sun-synchronous circular orbit, altitude = 685 km, inclination = 98.13º, period = 98.46 min, the mean local time of the ascending node is at 10:50 hours. Repeat cycle = 28 days. The KOMPSAT-2 orbit is identical to that of KOMPSAT-1 but with a different phase (180º apart).
RF communications: Onboard storage capacity of 96 Gbit (BOL) and 64 Gbit (EOL) for image data. S-band (TT&C) and X-band (payload data at 8.205 GHz downlink frequency) communications are provided for all data transmission to the ground (real-time and playback), the downlink data rate is 320 Mbit/s (QPSK modulation). Encryption of image data. The CCSDS communication protocols are implemented. The S-band data rates are: 2 kbit/s uplink and 1.5 Mbit/s downlink.
• KOMPSAT-2 is operational in 2013 (7th year on orbit) - and is expected to continue operations into the year 2014 (Ref. 14).
Figure 8: KOMPSAT-2 false color image of the Amazon river released on Oct. 18, 2013 and acquired on July 6, 2012 (image credit: KARI, ESA)
Legend to Figure 8: This KOMPSAT-2 image, featured on ESA's Earth from Space video program, shows the Amazon River in the heart of northern Brazil’s rainforest. The false colour makes land vegetation appear pink, while water appears green and dark blue. In the upper-right corner, we can see some sparse clouds. The shades of pink vary – the bolder color representing thick vegetation with lighter pink showing where trees were possibly cut down. In fact, in the upper-left portion of the image, there’s a clear line between the two shades, showing where vegetation was cut. The white dots show man-made structures. With their unique view from space, Earth observation satellites have been instrumental in highlighting the vulnerability of the rainforests by documenting the scale of deforestation. 12)
About 70 km west of the area pictured is the city of Manaus – the capital of Amazonas state.
Figure 9: The 'teasure peninsula' of Kazakhstan (image credit: KARI, ESA)
Legend to Figure 9: This KOMPSAT-2 image was acquired on 24 November 2012 over southwestern Kazakhstan’s Mangistau region east of the Caspian Sea. Along the top of the image we can see water and wetlands, with eroded areas at the top and on the right. The majority of the image is dominated by flatland covered with low-lying vegetation. The bright web of roads in the lower left section of the image is the Karakuduk oil field. The white squares in this ‘web’ indicate where wells are located. One can also see buildings and other structures related to oil production. Kazakhstan – and in particular, the Mangistau oblast – has large fossil fuel reserves and an abundant supply of other minerals and metals. Because of this, Mangistau is sometimes called the ‘treasure peninsula’ of Kazakhstan.
Figure 10: Rolling hills of farmland in the northwest United States are pictured in this image from the Kompsat-2 satellite, observed in Sept. 2012 (image credit: KARI, ESA)
Legend to Figure 10: The image was acquired over Washington state, the south and west areas of the image are in Walla Walla county, while the central-eastern-upper area is Columbia County. The area pictured is part of the Palouse region – an agricultural zone that mainly produces wheat and legumes. The rolling, picturesque landscape has sometimes been compared to Italy’s Tuscany. Touchet River, known for its trout fishing, can been seen in the lower left. The diagonal line running next to the river is a road that connects the town of Prescott to the west to Waitsburg to the east. 13)
• In November 2012, KARI selected SI (Satrec Initiative) of Daejeon, Korea as the 'worldwide exclusive representative' for KOMPSAT imagery sales. This applies to imagery of KOMPSAT-2, -3 and -5 missions. KARI has chosen Satrec Initiative for its ability to develop international customers and data distribution network, as well as long experience in space industry. Satrec Initiative will deliver high quality image data to worldwide customers through collaboration with existing satellite operators, and in addition to that, building its own KOMPSAT data distribution network. 14)
• The KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft and its payload are operating nominally in 2012. The spacecraft is well past its design life of 3 years. 15)
Note: The follow-on KOMPSAT-3 (Arirang-3) mission was launched on May 17, 2012 from TNSC, Japan.
Figure 11: Sample image of Astana, Kazakhstan, observerd with MSC (1 m Pan sharpened) on KOMPSAT-2 (image credit: KARI)
Figure 12: Sample image of Singapore, observed with MSC (1 m Pan sharpened) on KOMPSAT-2 (image credit: KARI) 16)
Figure 13: Uluru/Ayers Rock in the Australian outback, KOMPSAT-2 acquired this image on Sept.15, 2011 (image credit: ESA) 17)
• In June 2011, an orbit correction maneuer was conducted to satisfy the POD (Precise Orbit Determination) accuracy requiresments of 2-3 m rms (1σ). 18)
• The KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft and its payload are operating nominally in 2011.
• The KOMPSAT-2 spacecraft and its payload are operating nominally in 2010. With a design life of 3 years, KOMPSAT-2 has successfully completed its nominal mission lifetime, and now its mission is extended for further services to the users. 19)
• Spot Image operates a multimission ground segment, referred to as HMA (Heterogeneous Mission Access), integrating SPOT seies missions (SPOT-4/ -5) along with FormoSat-2, KOMPSAT-2, and in the future also with Pleiades and SPOT-6/-7 (Astroterra) spacecraft data. 20)
Figure 14: Schematic view of HMA implementation at GEO-Information Services (formerly Spot Image), image credit: ESA
• KOMPSAT-2 is also an ESA TPM (Third Party Mission). In general KOMPSAT-2 observations over Europe shared between ESA (Cat-1 users) and Spot Image (commercial users). From 2008-2010 (and possibly beyond) ESA is offering the data for research and application development:
- Archived KOMPSAT-2 data since 2006 (on demand production)
- New KOMPSAT-2 data (on demand acquisition and production)
• The KOMPSAT-2 geometric accuracy verification was successfully evaluated from 2007 through 2008. The 121 test sites provided excellent condition for geometric verification due to its flat terrain and a very good grid infrastructure. 21) 22)
Figure 15: Pan-sharpened image of the government complex Putrajaya near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 2007 (image credit: KARI, SPOT Image distribution)
• KOMPSAT-2 completed its commissioning phase in late September 2006 and started its nominal operations phase in October 2006.
• In August, 2006, KOMPSAT-2 had provided its first images.
Figure 16: Sydney Olympic Park, Australia in Aug. 2006 (image credit: KARI, SPOT Image distribution)
• On Oct. 24, 2005, KARI has made Spot Image (France) exclusive distributor of imagery from the KOMPSAT-2 Earth observation satellite - except for customers from Korea, the United States, and the Middle East, which are being serviced by KAI Image Inc. of Korea. 23)
Sensor complement: (MSC)
MSC (Multi-Spectral Camera):
MSC is a joint development of KARI with ELOP (Electro Optics Industries Ltd. of Rehovot, Israel) and OHB-System, Bremen, Germany. The objective is to collect high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imagery of the Earth's surface (simultaneous observation).
MSC is an optoelectronic linear pushbroom instrument with a single nadir-pointing telescope. The Pan band has a spectral range of 500-900 nm, the four MS bands are in the 450-900 nm range. The GSD (Ground Sample Distance) of the Pan data is 1 m (GSD), the MS data has a GSD of 4 m. The swath width is 15 km. A FOR (Field of Regard) of ±30º in pitch and up to ±56º in the roll direction is provided through spacecraft body pointing. MSC has a duty cycle of 20%. 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32)
The EFL (Effective Focal Length) of the optics subsystem is 9000 mm for the Pan band, and 2250 mm for the MS bands.
Table 1: Overview of MSC performance parameters
The MSC consists of the following elements: EOS (Electro-Optical Subsystem), PDTS (Payload Data Transmission Subsystem), PMU (Payload Management Unit), and the interconnection harness.
• EOS itself comprises the optical module including optical components and optical structure, Pan FPA (Focal Plane Assembly), MS FPA, and two CEU (Camera Electronics Unit), CEU-Pan and CEU-MS. A Ritchey-Chretien telescope type with large aperture is being used.
• PDTS consists of DCSU (Data Compression Storage Unit), DLS (Data Link System) including CCU (Channel Coding Unit), and QTX (QPSK Transmitter), and APS (Antenna Pointing System).
The PMU controls the overall MSC system, using dedicated communication channels (RS-422); it communicates with the spacecraft via the MIL-STD-1553B bus. MSC operations support includes programmable gain and offset to allow for in-flight adaptation of the instrument sensitivity to the landscape luminosity. Gains and offsets are selectable by command. In addition, MSC provides a calibration function. Actually, there are three different calibration functions: 1) the radiometric, 2) NUC (Non Uniformity Correction), and 3) the focus calibration function in order to use the image data accurately. 33) 34)
Figure 17: Block diagram of the MSC (image credit KARI)
Figure 18: Illustration of the MSC (image credit: KARI)
TDI (Time Delay Integration) techniques are being employed for panchromatic imagery up to level 32 to enhance the SNR and to support observations in low-light conditions. MSC features the support modes of a) automatic normal operation and b) of stereo imaging. The latter is being accomplished by the agility of the spacecraft, i.e. tilting the S/C either in roll (up to ±56º) and/or in pitch (up to ±30º).
The control parameters of MSC are:
• Line rate change: the CCD line rate can be changed in the range from 7100 to 2200 during stereo imaging to reduce the degradation of the imagery due to smear effects. Appropriate line rate setting is advantageous to minimize any degradation of the image quality.
• Gain and offset
• Number of sector for the recording of source data
• Compression ratio
• Encryption ratio
• Quantization table
Figure 19: Overview of MSC components (image credit: OHB-System)
Future: The KOMPSAT-3 project development started in 2004 at KARI for a projected launch in 2011 (Note: KOMSAT-3 was launched on May 17, 2012). The optical imager on this satellite will have a GSD (Ground Sample Distance) of 0.7 m.
Figure 20: Elop's MSC payload on KOMPSAT-2 (image credit: Tel Aviv University) 35)
Ground segment of KOMPSAT-2
Mission operations are performed at KMOC (Korea Aerospace Research Institute Mission Operation Center). The KGS (KOMPSAT Ground Station) is located at KARI, Daejeon, South Korea. In addition, there is a second ground station at ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute) in South Korea. Each site is comprised of MCE (Mission Control Element) and IRPE (Image Reception and Processing Element). MCE monitors and controls the satellite and provides mission planning. Mission control provides also operational orbit determination/prediction and the POD (Precise Orbit Determination) function. 36) 37) 38)
In the meantime, the KOMPSAT ground segment has become multi-mission facility to accommodate also the operations requirements of the future missions under development, namely KOMPSAT-5 (SAR payload, launch in late 2010) and KOMPSAT-3 (optical payload, launch in 2011). The final goal of multi-satellite operations is to reduce the operational cost while concurrently maximize the operational stability ensuring the safety of satellite and operational efficiency, i.e. do more with less. 39)
Figure 21: Architecture and operational flow of the MCE (Mission Control Element), image credit: KARI
Figure 22: The European ground segment of KOMPSAT-2 (image credit: SPOT Image) 40)
The MCE system consists of five subsystems:
- TTC (Tracking, Telemetry and Command Subsystem). TTC provides the S-band uplink and downlink communications interface with satellite, CCSDS command and telemetry processing and tracking capabilities.
- SOS (Satellite Operations Subsystem). SOS provides spacecraft command generation and execution, satellite state of health monitoring and housekeeping telemetry data processing. Use of TMAS (Telemetry Monitoring and Analysis System). 41)
- MPS (Mission Planning Subsystem). MPS provides satellite mission planning, incorporates user requests, prepares bus operation parameter including bus activity, defines and manages the configurations of the satellite, and prepares operating schedules. MPS is also referred to as MAPS (Mission Planning and Analysis Subsystem).
- FDS (Flight Dynamics Subsystem). FDS provides satellite flight dynamics operation support functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, and antenna pointing data generation for satellite tracking.
- SIM (Satellite Simulator Subsystem). SIM provides support functions rather than direct operational function such as anomaly resolution support and operating personnel training.
TMAS (Telemetry Monitoring and Analysis System): KARI developed TMAS capable of performing such tasks as telemetry processing, trend analysis and reporting activities automatically. This automation scheme considerably reduces the operational cost by eliminating many repetitive processes and allows operators to concentrate on special situations which require human intervention. The key functions of TMAS are as following: (Ref. 41)
- Telemetry receiving and archiving in accordance with contact schedule
- Telemetry limit violation check
- Trend Analysis based on the computation of daily statistics
- Report files generation and distribution to the MOT and the related engineering staff.
TMAS is composed of a common module and a mission-unique module. The common module includes the connection module, analysis module and report module. The mission-unique module includes the parsing module that consists of the database and the processing algorithm in accordance with the mission-unique processing scheme.
Figure 23: Architecture of TMAS (image credit: KARI)
The modular implementation of TMAS permits also the support of future missions such as KOMPSAT-5 and KOMPSAT-3, which are scheduled to be launched in 2010 and 2011, respectively.
MAPS predicts satellite orbital events that affect the satellite mission operations and generates a conflict-free pass plan of the satellite operations. MAPS was designed to make a plan of up to 20 imaging request per day. Since KARI contracted with SPOT Image in 1 June 2007, the amount of imaging acquisition requests has been on the increase. In order to meet the demands of lots of satellite mission planning activities, KARI developed a software called MPVS (Mission Planning Verification System) that is capable of verifying the results of mission planning. The development of MPVS is aimed at reducing operation risk and increase the efficiency of operations. 42)
The key functions of MPVS are aimed at verification about mission planning and command planning results created by MAPS. MPVS consists of the three main module, including: CSG (Contact Schedule Generation) module, MPV (Mission Planning Verification) module, and CPV (Command Planning Verification) module. The CSG module is to predict the ground contact time that is used for MPV and CPV. The MPV module is to verify the pass plan that is generated in the MAPS with the results of mission scheduling processing. The CPV module is to verify the command plan that will be uploaded to the satellite through SOS (Satellite Operations Subsystem).
Figure 24: Architecture of MPVS (Mission Planning Verification System), image credit: KARI
Contact schedule generation: MPVS requires the realistic and accurate ground contact time to check the constraints. The CSG module has the capability to generate the ground contact time considering several conditions such as the ground mask angle, operational limitations of the ground stations and the satellite. A user can flexibly configure the setup file in accordance with the change of operational condition concept. Figure 2 represents the architecture of CSG module.
Figure 25: Architecture of the CSG (Contact Schedule Generation) module (image credit: KARI)
MPV (Mission Planning Verification): KARI considers two basic mission planning activity types: One is named “Payload normal activity” that is related to the routine imaging activities. The other is named “Spacecraft activity” that includes all activities except for the routine imaging activities. For example, it includes the onboard data dump, ephemeris upload and orbit maneuver for the maintenance of satellite orbit, and parameter upload for the maintenance of payload. The automated verification using MPV is performed for the only “Payload normal activity” based on the SRF (Schedule Request File). The verification of “Spacecraft activity” can be done manually by users if needed.
Figure 26: Architecture of the MPV (Mission Planning Verification) module, image credit: KARI
FDS (Flight Dynamics Subsystem): The FDS supports operational orbit determination, precise orbit determination, precise orbit ephemeris generation, antenna pointing data generation, etc. KARI developed KOOPS (KOMPSAT's automated Operational Orbit Processing System) to support the various FDS tasks on a daily basis. KOOPS determines the orbit and evaluates its result using pre-defined criteria, and generates the orbit data automatically based on the execution schedule. The automated system integrates all of the components of several routine processes which are necessary for daily flight dynamics activities (Ref. 19).
The automation scheme in KOOPS, implemented for a multi-mission support, reduces considerably the operational risk and cost by eliminating many repetitive processes and allows engineers to concentrate on non-nominal situations which require human intervention. Additionally, the operational stability and efficiency of the flight dynamics supports are significantly enhanced.
Figure 27: Schematic view of KOOPS and its external elements (image credit: KARI)
• On the domestic scene (Korea) KAI Image Inc. is the commercial distributor of KOMPSAT-2 data. 43)
• SPOT Image S. A. (Toulouse, France) is the exclusive commercial distributor of KOMPSAT-2 imagery (except for customers in Korea, the United States and the Middle East) with data reception via its own acquisition stations.
Figure 28: Overview of ground segment data flow of KOMPSAT-2 (image credit: SPOT Image, Ref. 20)
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The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates.