Cluster (Four Spacecraft Constellation in Concert with SOHO)
Cluster is a collaborative ESA/NASA multi-spacecraft mission within ESA's `Solar Terrestrial Science Program' (STSP), part of ISTP (International Solar Terrestrial Physics Programme). The objective is the observation of key interaction processes between two cosmic plasmas [study of small-scale structures (from a few to a few tens of ion Larmor radii) in the Earth's plasma environment]. The goal is to study the physical processes involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere by visiting key regions like the polar cusps and the magnetotail (mapping in three dimensions the plasma structures contained in these regions). Other regions of measurement are: a) solar wind and bow shock, b) magnetopause, and c) auroral zone. The simultaneous four-point measurements (with four S/C) also allow the derivation of differential plasma quantities for the first time. 1) 2)
More detailed objectives call for the mapping of the small-scale plasma structures and current densities at:
• The solar wind bow shock: Study of the propagation of electric waves through the bow shock and magnetosheath
• The magnetopause, characterizing the motion and local geometry of the magnetopause, and identify the mechanism whereby plasma infiltrates the magnetopause
• The polar cusps, studying the behavior of postulated plasma vortices
• The magnetotail: observation of ion beams, and calculation of the magnitude of field aligned currents, in the plasma sheet boundary layer. Studies of the disruption of cross-tail currents during substorms, and the consequences for the plasma sheet
• The auroral zones. Determination of the sources of magnetospheric plasma, such as the polar wind, the cleft ion fountain, and nightside auroral zone.
Figure 1: Artist's view of the Cluster spacecraft constellation (image credit: ESA)
Cluster-I: The launch failure of Ariane-5 on June 4, 1996 with the Cluster satellites onboard and the ESA decision of a recovery program - are the reasons for a division into Cluster-I and Cluster-II programs.
The Cluster-I launch on June 4, 1996 with the first Ariane-5 flight from Kourou turned out to be a failure. Ariane-5 rose flawlessly to an altitude of 3.5 km, at which point a sudden swivelling of both solid-booster nozzles caused the vehicle to tilt sharply. The resulting intense aerodynamic structural loads caused the rocket vehicle to break up, prompting the onboard safety systems to initiate self-destruction. The entire four-spacecraft mission was lost.
Cluster-II program: In April 1997 ESA decided to go ahead with a recovery program, a new four-spacecraft mission, called Cluster-II, retaining all of the critical mission parameters. The Cluster-II mission comprises the Phoenix spacecraft (built with spares from the four original Cluster satellites) and three identical new satellites (construction and test of four S/C in 18 months, the industrial consortium was led by Astrium GmbH of Friedrichshafen, Germany). The overall objective is to investigate the physical interaction between the sun and the Earth, with four spacecraft flying in tetrahedral formation. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)
Note: The new S/C was named after the mythical bird “Phoenix.” In ancient Egypt and in classical antiquity, phoenix is a fabulous long-lived bird associated with the worship of the sun. As its end approached, the phoenix fashioned a nest of aromatic boughs and spices, set it on fire, and was consumed in the flames. From the pyre miraculously sprang a new phoenix, which, after embalming its father's ashes in an egg of myrrh, flew with the ashes to Heliopolis (”City of the Sun”) in Egypt, where it deposited them on the altar in the temple of the Egyptian god of the sun, Re.
The four identical Cluster S/C are spin-stabilized (15 rpm, stringent requirements on electromagnetic cleanliness). Conductive surfaces and an extremely low S/C-generated electromagnetic background noise are mandatory for accurate electric field and cold plasma measurements.
Figure 2: Illustration of the Cluster spacecraft
Like their predecessor spacecraft of Cluster-I, each Cluster-II S/C is cylindrical in shape with a diameter of 2.9 m and a height of 1.3 m (launch mass = 1200 kg, payload = 71 kg, S/C (dry) = 550 kg, propellant = 650 kg), solar array power = 224 W (payload power 47 W), battery type: 5 identical silver-cadmium batteries, each of them is built of 14 cells in series with 16 Ah capacity (total battery capacity of about 80 Ah). S/C design life of 5 years (nominal operational lifetime of 27 months).
The S/C cylinder structure consists of aluminum honeycomb covered with a skin of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). The equipment panel inside this cylinder supports the main engine, two high-pressure fuel tanks and other parts of the propulsion system. Six spherical fuel tanks made from titanium are attached to the outside of this central cylinder. The fuel they carry accounts for more than half the launch weight of each spacecraft. Each spacecraft has a single main thruster (400 N) and eight smaller (10 N) thrusters for smaller changes of orbit. All thrusters use mono-ethyl hydrazine and mixed oxides of nitrogen for propellant. The large propellant mass is needed for an extensive series of maneuvers to reach the operational orbit and, during the course of the mission, to change the relative spacing of the S/C (constellation maintenance). The four spacecraft are spin-stabilized at 15 rpm. The in-orbit configuration is characterized by two 5 m experiment radial booms, four 50 m experiment wire booms and two axial telecommunications antenna booms. The S/C attitudes ensure a solar aspect angle of about 90º.
Figure 3: Cutaway of Cluster S/C main equipment platform showing FGM (1), EDI (2), and ASPOC (3) instruments (image credit: ESA)
The platform accommodates on one side the instruments. Each satellite carries two high capacity redundant tape recorders (data return of 50% per orbit). Two rigid booms, each 5 m, carry the magnetometers. Two pairs of wire booms, each with a tip-to-tip length of 100 m, permit electric field measurements (background magnetic field of×about 0.25 nT is aim).
Table 1: Overview of spacecraft parameters
Figure 4: Cutaway of a Cluster S/C showing its main structural features (image credit: ESA)
Figure 5: Inspection of one the the four Cluster satellites at ESA (image credit: ESA)
Launch: The launch of the Cluster-II mission used two Soyuz launch vehicles (with the Fregat upper stage and two S/C at a time) from Baikonur, Kazakhstan (launch provider: Starsem).
• The launch of the first mission took place on July 16, 2000.
• The second pair of S/C was launched on Aug. 9, 2000.
The launch sequence called first for the injection of the S/C into an intermediate transfer orbit in pairs of two. Then, a series of propulsive maneuvers brought the four S/C from their initial transfer orbits into their mission orbits.
On the second launch day (Aug. 9, 2000), the four Cluster spacecraft were named by ESA as: Rumba (S/C 1), Salsa (S/C 2), Samba (S/C 3), and Tango (S/C 4). The names of the dances were suggested by Raymond Cotton of Bristol, UK (the winner of a naming competition); they are supposed to reflect the way in which the four satellites are dancing in formation around the heavens during their mission. The two S/C of the first launch carry the names Salsa (S/C 2) and Samba (S/C 3); the spacecraft of second launch have the names Rumba (S/C 1) and Tango (S/C 4).
Figure 6: Artist's rendition of the Fregat upper stage launching two Cluster spacecraft (image credit: ESA)
Orbit: HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit), nominal apogee = 18.7 RE (119,000 km), perigee = 3 RE (19,000 km), inclination=90º, period of 57 hours (3420 min). The orbit for each S/C is selected so that each is located at a vertex of a predetermined tetrahedron when crossing the regions of interest within the magnetosphere. The size of this tetrahedron is varied from 200 km up to about 19,000 km during the course of the mission. The S/C, after release, use their own on-board propulsion systems to reach the final operational orbit. Since the Cluster-II orbit is fixed in the inertial system, the rotation of the Earth around the sun causes the S/C to cross the various near-Earth plasma regions, such as the Earth magnetotail soon after launch and the polar cusp and solar wind six months later.
Figure 7: Orbit plot and spacecraft configuration in neutral sheet as of June 2007 (image credit: ESA)
Figure 8: Artist's view of the Sun-Earth interaction studied by the four Cluster spacecraft (image credit: ESA)
Status of the Cluster-II mission:
• Nov. 2013: The Cluster mission operated a "tilt campaign" during the month of May 2008. Two of the four identical Cluster spacecraft were placed at a close distance (~50 km) from each other and the spin axis of one of the spacecraft pair was tilted by an angle of ~46º. This gave the opportunity, for the first time in space, to measure the global characteristics of AC electric field, at the sensitivity available with long boom (88 m) antennas, simultaneously from the specific configuration of the tilted pair of satellites and from the available base of three satellites placed at a large characteristic separation (~1 RE). 9)
This new study using ESA's Cluster mission has shown improved precision in determining the source of a radio emission produced by the Earth. The experiment involved tilting one of the four identical Cluster spacecraft to measure the electric field of this emission in three dimensions for the first time. 10)
Figure 9: The Cluster spacecraft in special configuration for observing Earth's radio wave emissions in May 2008 (image credit: ESA)
Legend to Figure 9: The Cluster spacecraft C3 and C4, in the foreground, were used as a single observatory for the study. The C3 spacecraft (right) is shown in the special 'tilt' configuration that was used for the observations for a period of one month. The 45 degree tilt allowed for detection of the signal in 3D, and showed different results to the more typical triangulation method.
Two main types of radio waves, with different generation mechanisms, are known to be produced within the Earth's magnetosphere: the AKR (Auroral Kilometric Radiation) and the NTC (Non-Thermal Continuum) radiation. Both have been observed in space around Earth since the 1970s, and within the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune since the late 1980s. Radio waves can travel long distances, carrying with them useful information from the regions of the magnetosphere where they are generated.
The study researchers (Ref. 9) analyzed radio waves measured by the WHISPER instruments on board of the four Cluster spacecraft. They showed that classical triangulation, in this case using three of the spacecraft situated thousands of kilometers apart, can lead to a source location nowhere near the boundaries where NTC generation occurs. NTC can emit from the plasmapause, and possibly from the magnetopause. The erroneous source location, far from these boundaries, given by triangulation is attributed to small deviations from the assumed polarization of the emission.
The second method, using the new 3D electric field measurements, indicated a source located along the plasmapause at medium geomagnetic latitude, far away from the source location estimated by triangulation. The Cluster observations reveal, that this NTC source emits from the flank of the plasmapause towards the polar cap. Understanding the source of the NTC waves will help with a broader understanding of their generation, amplification, and propagation.
The new 3D method involved placing two of the four identical Cluster spacecraft, C3 and C4, within 50 km of each other so that they could be considered as a single observatory.
While the other spacecraft remained in their normal positions with their spin plane roughly level with the ecliptic plane, the spin axis of C3 was tilted to an angle of 45º, its spinning antenna pointing to directions outside the ecliptic plane. This allowed the radio waves to be measured locally in three dimensions by the C3 - C4 observatory, with two identical 88 m long-boom antennas capable of catching faint waves, for the first time in space.
• Sept. 20, 2013: In an orbital reconfiguration that will help to maintain the mission’s life span, two of the four satellites, namely C1 and C3, achieved their closest-ever separation on 19 September, closing to within just 4 km of each other as they orbited at up to 23,000 km/h high above Earth. 11)
The project is optimizing the Cluster formation so that the separation between Cluster 1 and the duo of Cluster 3 and 4 – which are on almost identical orbits – is kept below 100 km when the formation crosses Earth’s magnetic equator. The formation will hold three of the four satellites close together at lower altitudes, optimizing the range of science observations. The new formation will be held until early November before the separations are increased to more than 1000 km.
• Sept. 2013: A new Cluster mission study of the relations between the position of the plasmapause and the position of the radiation belt boundaries was published by an international team of physicists. During the period 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2009, the Cluster constellation penetrated deep inside the plasmasphere and the radiation belts, with a lowest orbital point of 2 RE. The team decided to take this rare opportunity to analyze populations of electrons of different energies in these regions with three of the instruments on board the Cluster satellite C3. 12) 13)
The positions of the outer radiation belt's boundaries were deduced by analyzing background data from the CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) instrument, which is sensitive to electrons with energy > 2 MeV, while the position of the plasmapause (the edge of the plasmasphere) was obtained from data of the WHISPER (Waves of HIgh frequency and Sounder for Probing of the Electron density by Relaxation) instrument, which is able to determine the electron density inside and outside the plasmasphere. These results were then refined by comparing them with data from the RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) instrument, which determined the locations of the radiation belts' boundaries by detecting high energy electrons between 244 and 406.5 keV.
Several hundred data sets were obtained over the two year period of observation, which happened to coincide with a period of low solar activity and generally quiet geomagnetic conditions. The team's analysis of the Cluster C3 observations showed more variety in the position of the outer edge of the plasmasphere – the plasmapause – than in the position of the furthest boundary of the outer radiation belt.
For long periods, when geomagnetic activity was low, the plasmapause was located toward the farthest reaches of the outer belt – typically around 6 RE, but sometimes expanding outward to 8 RE or beyond. This result contrasted with previous studies based on other spacecraft observations, which indicated a correlation between the position of the inner edge of the outer belt and the position of the plasmapause.
However, there were indications of different behavior during the occasional periods of higher geomagnetic activity. Then, the plasmapause moved closer to the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt, at around 4.5 RE, as observed by previous studies.
During the periods of low geomagnetic activity, the plasmasphere was more easily filled by material from the underlying ionosphere - Earth's highest atmospheric layer. During geomagnetic storms, however, the diameter of the plasmasphere was reduced and the plasmapause moved closer to Earth.
The thickness of the slot region, which separates the two main belts, was also found to follow the variations in geomagnetic activity. Particle loss in the radiation belts increased after the activity decreased and the plasmasphere expanded, causing the slot region to become wider.
Figure 10: The the panels show how the relative locations of the outer boundary of the Earth's plasmasphere, the plasmapause, (shown in blue) and the van Allen belts (shown in red) change according to geomagnetic conditions (image credit: ESA, C. Carreau)
Legend to Figure 10: The plasmasphere – the innermost part of the Earth's magnetosphere – is a donut-shaped region of low energy charged particles (cold plasma) centered around the planet's equator and rotating along with it. Its toroidal shape is determined by the magnetic field of Earth. The plasmasphere begins above the upper ionosphere and extends outwards, with the outer boundary varying (depending on geomagnetic conditions) from 4.5 Earth radii (RE) to 8 RE.
The two Van Allen radiation belts are concentric, tire-shaped belts (shown in blue) of highly energetic (0.1–10 MeV) electrons and protons, which are trapped by the magnetic field and travel around the Earth. These radiation belts partly overlap with the plasmasphere. The inner Van Allen belt is located typically between 6000 and 12 000 km (1 - 2 RE) above Earth's surface, although it dips much closer over the South Atlantic Ocean. The outer radiation belt covers altitudes of ~25 000 to 45 000 km (4 to 7 RE).
Both belts are separated from each other by an empty "slot" region. A temporary third belt (not shown in this image), between this slot and the outer main belt, was detected in 2013 by NASA's Van Allen Probes.
Data from the Cluster mission have shown that the position of the plasmapause – the outer boundary of the plasmasphere – is quite variable and, in addition, that the size of the slot region between the radiation belts varies with changes in geomagnetic conditions.
During periods of low geomagnetic activity (top panel) the plasmapause typically extends to around 6 RE, occasionally expanding beyond the boundary of the outer radiation belt, as far as 8 RE or even further. This result contrasts with previous studies based on observations from different spacecraft which indicated a correlation between the position of the plasmapause and the location of the inner edge of the outer belt.
During periods of higher geomagnetic activity (with moderate activity illustrated in the central panel and high activity in the lower panel) the plasmapause moves closer to the inner boundary of the outer belt, to around 4.5 RE. This behavior is similar to that observed by previous studies. (Note that the outer radiation belt also moves, but at a slower rate, towards the Earth). The size of the slot region also varies with geomagnetic conditions, being wider during low geomagnetic activity (Ref. 13).
• Mission operations extension: On June 19, 2013, ESA's SPC (Science Program Committee) approved an extension of the Cluster-II mission until the end of 2016 - consistent with previous cycles, these are subject to mid-term confirmation, in late 2014. 14)
• Magnetic reconnection: In March 2013, a study was published in which scientists have resolved the detailed structure of the core region where magnetic reconnection takes place in the magnetosphere of Earth using unprecedented wave measurements. The study, based on data from ESA's Cluster mission, has mapped different types of electrostatic waves in this region. The waves trace populations of plasma particles that are involved in the different stages of a magnetic reconnection event. 15) 16)
The study is based on data gathered by three of the four Cluster spacecraft (C1, C3 and C4) on 10 September 2001 as they crossed a magnetic reconnection region in the magnetotail of Earth's magnetic environment.
Figure 11: The magnetic reconnection region in the tail of Earth's magnetosphere (image credit: ESA/ATG medialab)
Legend to Figure 11: This illustration shows the configuration of a region, in the tail of Earth's magnetosphere, where magnetic reconnection is taking place. Two flows of plasma with anti-parallel magnetic fields are pushed together, flowing in from above and below, and create a thin current sheet. As plasma keeps flowing towards this sheet, particles are accelerated and eventually released via two symmetric jets to the left and right. This creates an X-shaped transition region, with a 'separatrix' region that divides the inflowing plasma from the outflows of highly energetic particles.
In situ measurements of electric and magnetic fields performed with ESA's Cluster mission have peered through the structure of the separatrix region and identified three different types of electrostatic waves that arise there. The data revealed that both low- and high-frequency waves – known as Electron-Cyclotron waves (represented in cyan in this illustration) and Langmuir waves (represented in blue), respectively – are present in the vicinity of the inflowing plasma. Single-pulsed waves called Electrostatic Solitary Waves (represented in white) are found closer to the outflowing plasma.
Table 2: Magnetic reconnection study of high-frequency waves in the reconnection diffusion region of the Cluster mission (Ref. 15)
• The Cluster-spacecraft and their payloads are operational in 2013. The current mission extension is to the end of 2014. ESA/NASA MOU extended up to 31 Dec. 2016. 17)
• On June 7, 2012, the results of a new study were announced by an ESA press release — dealing with a most likely explanation of the particle acceleration in the Earth's magnetosphere, a long awaited contribution/confirmation in the debate concerning how and where these particles are accelerated. 20) 21) 22)
The study is based on data gathered by the four Cluster spacecraft on 14 February 2003 as they were moving across the northern cusp of Earth's magnetosphere. During this event, the separation between the four spacecraft was large enough (about 5000 km) that spacecraft within and outside the cusp could take simultaneous measurements. The spacecraft measured the density and energy of high-energy electrons, protons and oxygen ions, the strength of the magnetic field and the pitch angle of the particles (the inclination of the direction of motion of a particle with respect to the magnetic field).
The data collected by the four spacecraft, together with high-resolution, three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic simulations, suggest that the high-energy particles observed in the cusps are accelerated locally as they drift along the potential gradients created by magnetic reconnection. Not all reconnection events are able to accelerate particles up to such high energies. The particles need to remain trapped for a sufficiently long time in a region with weak magnetic field, such as the diamagnetic cavity in the cusp, in order to gain large amounts of energy.
Figure 12: The four Cluster spacecraft crossing the northern cusp of Earth's magnetosphere (image credit: ESA/AOES Medialab)
Legend to Figure 12: The four spacecraft of ESA's Cluster mission are shown as they fly from the magnetosphere into the northern cusp, in the configuration they had on 14 February 2003. This was a very favorable crossing event to study the properties of high-energy particles in the cusp. Using data from this event, scientists have inferred that the particles are accelerated locally, within the cusp, as they cross regions characterized by different electric potential – a configuration shown to result from magnetic reconnection events for this case study.
Measurement of cold plasma: Swedish researchers have developed a new method to measure cold plasma at high altitudes. It turns out there are significantly more cold, charged ions in Earth's upper altitudes than previously imagined. At these lofty elevations, storms of high-energy charged particles — space weather — roil the atmosphere, creating auroras, buffeting satellites, and sometimes wreaking havoc with electronic devices and electric grids on Earth. The new evidence of abundant cold (i.e. low-energy) ions may change our understanding of this tumultuous space weather and lead to more accurate forecasting of it, scientists say. The finding might also shed light on what’s happening around other planets and moons — for instance, helping explain why the once robust atmosphere of Mars is so wispy today. 24) 25)
• Measurement and analysis of a bow shock event: In November 2011, a new study on data from the Cluster mission has revealed that the bow shock formed by the solar wind as it encounters Earth's magnetic field is remarkably thin: it measures only 17 km across. Thin astrophysical shocks such as this are candidate sites for early phases of particle acceleration. The finding thus sheds new light on the much debated issue of particle injection in the context of cosmic ray acceleration. 26)
The study is based on data gathered by the four Cluster spacecraft of ESA on January 9, 2005. On this occasion, the combination of a slowly moving shock and a favorable orientation of the magnetic field, which was aligned with the spacecraft spin axes, enabled data to be sampled with unprecedented time resolution – at intervals of 250 milliseconds, corresponding to one sixteenth of the time interval that a spacecraft needs to complete a full spin. The data show that, in the transition layer between the non-shocked and shocked regions of the plasma, half of the total heating undergone by electrons takes place on a scale of 17.3 km. - Steven J. Schwartz, Imperial College London, and colleagues used the Cluster data to estimate the thickness of the shock layer. This is important because the thinner a shock is, the more easily it can accelerate particles. 27)
Figure 13: Artist's impression of the four Cluster spacecraft flying through the thin layer of Earth's bow shock. The crossing, which took place on 9 January 2005, showed that the shock's width was only about 17 km across (image credit: ESA)
Figure 14: Schematic of the magnetic field strength and electron temperature in the plasma surrounding Earth's bow shock (image credit: Steven Schwartz, ICL)
Legend to Figure 14: This graph shows measurements performed with one of the four spacecraft of ESA's Cluster mission during a favorable crossing of Earth's bow shock that took place on 9 January 2005. The bow shock is a standing shock wave that forms when the solar wind encounters the magnetosphere of our planet. Shown in the graph are the intensity of the magnetic field (in black) and the electron temperature (in red) measured as this spacecraft was flying through the transition layer between the non-shocked and shocked regions of the plasma. The shock location is indicated at the center, and distances are relative to its location. - As the four spacecraft make the transition into the shocked region of the plasma, they record how the electrons experience a dramatic and abrupt rise in temperature over scales of only about 17 km. The rise in temperature follows closely the steep rise in the intensity of the magnetic field. Such a sharp transition is close to the limit set by wave dispersion and could hardly be any steeper, implying that the shock layer is as thin as it can be.
• The four Cluster spacecraft ended their long eclipse season in July 2011. During the summer, some of the spacecraft will fly at their lowest altitude since launch. At around 200–300 km, i.e. below the ISS, there are chances for ground-based observation of the spacecraft. In the next months, the spacecraft will target low-altitude regions including the inner plasmasphere and the auroral regions. 28)
A recent result detailed in situ observations of wave-particle interactions in Earth’s magnetotail. Heating and acceleration of plasma when magnetic reconnection occurs is a very active area of research and is key to understanding solar activity in the form of CMEs and other astrophysical processes. Observations indicate that particle energization, seen also in solar flares, is carried out by a combination of reconnection and plasma jet interaction with the local magnetic field structure. This result highlights the key role of electron physics in reconnection. The observations show that wave generation strongly affects the electron dynamics, and plays a crucial role in the energy conversion chain during plasma jet braking. The key aspect of the result is the observation of persistent wave activity, which directly indicates the sustained pileup of the magnetic field. The results presented are of universal importance for solar and astrophysical environments.
Legend to Figure 15: Cluster observations confirm that acceleration of energetic particles in Earth’s magnetotail is caused by magnetic reconnection, triggering plasma jets (light blue jet tailward of the Cluster satellites) followed by betatron acceleration which heats and further accelerates these jets towards Earth.
• June 30, 2011: Using ingenuity and an unorthodox 'dirty hack', ESA has recovered the four-satellite Cluster mission from near loss. The drama began in March 2011, when a crucial science package stopped responding to commands – one of a mission controller's worst fears. 30) 31)
Among each satellite's 11 instruments, five comprise the WEC (Wave Experiment Consortium), which makes important measurements of electrical and magnetic fields. All four sensors must work together to make carefully orchestrated observations – the loss of any one could seriously affect the unique 'four-satellite science' delivered by the mission.
On March 5, 2011, the WEC package on Cluster's number 3 satellite, Samba, failed to switch on. ESA ground controllers at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre), in Darmstadt, Germany, immediately triggered a series of standard recovery procedures, none of which succeeded. - Even worse, no status information could be coaxed out of the instruments.
With no status data and no response from the instrument, the ground controller team suspected either that the device's five power switches were locked closed or a failure caused by an electrical short circuit, one of the most dangerous faults on any satellite.
Over the next several weeks, working closely with the satellites' builder, the WEC scientists and manufacturer, and other ESA teams, the Cluster control team diagnosed the problem, eventually making use of some onboard software that had been dormant since just after launch over 10 years ago. - The result ruled out a short circuit and pointed an accusing finger at the five power switches being locked in the 'closed' position.
Tests in 1995 had simulated what might happen if three of the five switches locked close, but no one ever considered how to recover from all five being locked – such a situation had not been deemed possible. - Armed with this information and a great deal of ingenuity, the team painstakingly designed a recovery procedure and tested it on one of Samba's functioning sister satellites.
The solution was based on a 'dirty hack' – jargon referring to any non-standard procedure – but no other option was available. On June 1, 2011, a series of commands was uplinked. To immense relief of the team, these flipped the power switches to 'on' and the recalcitrant WEC came back to life.
Cluster has since returned to normal operation and measures are being taken to prevent this failure from happening again.
• The Cluster constellation is operational in 2011. In fact, February 2011 marks the tenth anniversary of the start of the science phase of the four ESA Cluster satellites, in one of the most successful scientific missions ever launched. In this period, the ESA/NASA Cluster mission has revealed previously hidden interactions between the Sun and Earth. Its studies have uncovered secrets of the aurora and solar storms, and given us insight into fundamental processes occurring across the Universe. 32)
- During the course of the mission, the distance between the Cluster satellites has changed numerous times. Varying the size of the Cluster ‘constellation’ has allowed Cluster to examine Earth’s magnetosphere at different scales, targeting the tetrahedron in various regions around the orbit.
- In 2005, a new ‘asymmetric’ flying formation allowed the satellites to make measurements of medium and large-scale phenomena simultaneously, transforming Cluster into the first ever ‘multiscale’ mission. Such an orbital configuration facilitates study of the link between medium-scale kinetic processes of the plasma around Earth and the large-scale morphology of the magnetosphere.
- In one of the most complex maneuvers ever conducted by ESA to date, Cluster 1, 2 and 3 became separated by 10 000 km to form a triangular shape with Cluster 4 at 1000 km from Cluster 3 in a direction perpendicular to the large triangle. In 2007, Cluster 3 and 4 were orbiting just 17 km apart – the closest distance that two ESA spacecraft have achieved in routine operations. To date, these satellites have been commanded through around 800 orbital maneuvers – an enormous number in spacecraft navigation terms.
Legend to Figure 16: The region high above the magnetic poles known as the cusp, the magnetic tail on the night side of Earth, the auroral zone and the solar wind. Since 2005 Cluster has made several multi-scale investigations, separating three satellites in a triangle by thousands of kilometers while having the fourth satellite at tens to hundreds of kilometers from this triangle.
- The spacecraft batteries are made of non-magnetic silver-cadmium to avoid interfering with Cluster’s instruments. But over time, such batteries generate oxy-hydrogen, an explosive gas. To date, seven batteries have cracked across the four satellites, two of which were more like small explosions. Ground controllers saw the satellites lurch each time this happened. From 20 batteries, just seven remain (November 2010).
• Since December 2010, the four Cluster satellites are now deep into the long eclipse season, which will last until July 2011. During each orbit, for the duration of the eclipse (up to an hour), the satellites are fully powered down, waking up once they see the Sun again. These eclipse power-downs are now routine for Cluster. During the next few months, Cluster will be examining the dayside magnetosphere and the solar wind flying in a tetrahedral formation at scales of around 5000 km. 33) 34)
• In November 2010, ESA's Science Program Committee approved an extension of the Cluster mission for 2 years up to the end of 2012. 35)
• The four Cluster spacecraft and their instruments are operational in July 2010 (celebrating their 10th anniversary in orbit on July 16, 2010). During the past decade, Cluster’s four satellites have provided extraordinary insights into the Sun-Earth interconnection providing a 3D picture of how the continuous ‘solar wind’ of charged particles or plasma from the Sun affects our near-Earth space environment and its protective ‘magnetic bubble', known as the magnetosphere. 36) 37) 38)
On 1 September 2000, just a few weeks after launch, the four individual satellites of the Cluster mission began coordinated orbits, marking the formal start of formation flying. The observations have revealed a dramatic realm of invisible violence. Cluster has investigated how the solar wind penetrates near-Earth space and discovered that, under certain circumstances, magnetic whirlpools larger than the entire Earth bore into our magnetosphere, injecting their venomous particles. When these solar wind particles reach Earth’s atmosphere, they trigger the sublime glow of the northern and southern auroras.
With the four satellites still in excellent condition, the mission has now been extended to the end of 2014 (pending a review in late 2012). 39)
• In July 2010, an ESA AO (Announcement of Opportunity) is soliciting special operation proposals for participation in the Guest Investigator (GI) Program of the Cluster extended mission. The aim of the GI Program is to open future spacecraft science operations to the scientific community. Proposals to exploit Cluster data along with other satellites data (e.g. THEMIS), or proposals for theoretical and/or modelling studies focused on the goals and objectives of the mission, are encouraged. Principal and co-investigators on experiments on the Cluster mission are also eligible to propose under this AO. The deadline of proposal submission is Oct. 1, 2010. 40)
• Cluster safely passed through its long eclipse season in October and November 2009, including a number of complete power-downs and restarts of the spacecraft. In the autumn, the apogee was lowered by 5000 km to improve data download volume. During winter, Cluster made the first plasma measurements in the auroral acceleration regions with four satellites and passed into the dayside magnetosphere to examine the magnetopause, magnetosheath and bow-shock. 41)
• The spacecraft and instruments are operational in 2009. The Cluster mission has been extended twice in the past, up to June 2009. In early Feb. 2009, ESA provided another mission extension until Dec. 31, 2009. The new extension will make it possible to study the auroral regions above Earth’s poles and widen the investigations of the magnetosphere — its inner region in particular. 42)
Thanks to Cluster, scientists have reached an unprecedented understanding of the way solar activity affects the near-Earth environment. Cluster pioneered measurements of electric currents in space, revealed the nature of black aurorae, and discovered that plasma — a gas of charged particles surrounding Earth — makes ‘waves’.
• In the spring of 2009, ESA's Cluster mission revealed, for the first time, how turbulence develops in space just outside the Earth's magnetic environment. This result improves the understanding of turbulence, a key physical process by which energy throughout the Universe is transported from large scales at which it is input, to small scales where it is dissipated. 43)
The solar wind, when it reaches a magnetized planet, is first decelerated from supersonic to subsonic speed by a shock wave (called the bow shock), located in front of the magnetopause. The region between the bow shock and the magnetopause is called the magnetosheath. This region is one of the most turbulent environments of near-Earth space, making it an excellent laboratory in which to study turbulence. Characterizing the properties of the magnetic turbulence in this region is of prime importance to understand its role in fundamental processes such as energy dissipation or the acceleration of particles to high-energies.
The Cluster mission showed that extreme solar activity drastically compresses the magnetosphere and modifies the composition of ions in the near-Earth environment. A new model is needed to take these flare changes into consideration and to deduct how how these changes affect orbiting satellites, including the GPS system. - Under normal solar conditions, satellites orbit within the magnetosphere — the protective magnetic bubble carved out by Earth’s magnetic field. But when solar activity increases, the picture changes significantly: the magnetosphere gets compressed and particles get energized, exposing satellites to higher doses of radiation that can perturb signal reception. This is why monitoring and forecasting its impact on near-Earth space is becoming increasingly critical to safeguard daily life on Earth. 44)
• Out of 19 successive eclipses only 12 could be run nominally. 45)
• The 4 Cluster spacecraft are providing a detailed three-dimensional map of the magnetosphere, with surprising results (observation of magnetic reconnection events).
• December 29, 2006 marked the 1000th orbit around Earth of the Cluster constellation. 46)
• On Feb. 10, 2005, the ESA Science Program Committee approved the extension of the Cluster mission, pushing back the end date from December 2005 to December 2009. This extension will allow the first measurements of space plasmas at both small and large scales simultaneously and the sampling of geospace regions never crossed before by four spacecraft flying in close formation. 47)
• In the fall of 2006, the S/C went through a long ecliptic season. During this period, S/C 1 (Rumba) had very weak batteries. The counteract this, ESOC defined a new mode of operation called “decoder only” where the computer and all other subsystems are switched off. This warm-up period lasted from Sept. 15-23, 2006. The other three S/C recorded data as usual between eclipses. 48)
• December 29, 2006, marked the 1000th orbit around the Earth of the four ESA satellites composing the Cluster mission. Launched in the summer 2000, these spacecraft are delivering a unique harvest of in-situ scientific data of the Earth environment, from 25 000 km to 125 000 km in altitude. 49)
• The batteries of the satellites are well beyond their design lives and are starting to fail - the power situation first became critical during the long eclipses in September 2006. The battery aboard one could not power the heaters or computer, so new options had to be developed to avoid dangerous low temperatures and to regain control after each eclipse.
During eclipses, each satellite is powered by five silver-cadmium batteries. In the early 1990's, when Cluster was designed, these were the only non-magnetic batteries available (as Cluster's instruments were intended to measure magnetic fields, the internal fields had to be minimized). Their short lifetime of typically 2.5 years is limited by the amount of cadmium, which is gradually dissolved by the aggressive electrolyte. Hence, a new strategy for heating the satellites was developed and validated. 50)
• The Cluster mission has been in its science operations phase since February 2001.
• On September 1, 2000, just a few weeks after launch, the four individual satellites of the Cluster mission began coordinated orbits, marking the formal start of formation flying.
Sensor complement: (FGM, STAFF, EFW, WHISPER, WBD, DWP, EDI, CIS, PEACE, RAPID, ASPOC)
The instrument complement remained identical to that of the original version of Cluster-I. Each of the four Cluster-II spacecraft carries an identical set of 11 scientific instruments.
A Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC) was formed to get maximum scientific return from the available spacecraft instruments. WEC comprises five coordinated experiments designed for measuring electric and magnetic fluctuations, and small-scale structures within critical layers in the Earth's magnetosphere. These WEC experiments are: STAFF, EFW, WHISPER, DWP, and WBD. 51) 52)
FGM (Fluxgate Magnetometer):
PI: A. Balogh, Imperial College, London, UK. Study of small-scale structures and processes in the Earth's environment. Objective: Provision of intercalibrated measurements of the magnetic field vector B at the four Cluster S/C. Identical instrumentation on all S/C (two triaxial fluxgate sensors and a data processing unit). Measurement of B wave from DC to 10 Hz, resolution => 6 pT. The magnetometers have eight possible operating ranges; of these, five are used on the Cluster magnetometers. The ranges were selected to provide good resolution in the solar wind (with expected field magnitudes between 3 and 30 nT), and up to the highest field values expected in the magnetosphere along the Cluster orbit (up to about 1,000 nT).
Table 4: Operating ranges of the FGM instrument
Figure 17: View of the FGM instrument (image credit: ESA)
STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations):
PI: N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin, CRPE/CNET, France). Objectives: Study of wave-particle interaction in the region where the solar wind meets the Earth's magnetosphere. STAFF looks at waves (rapid variations in the magnetic fields), particularly in regions where the charged particles of the solar wind interact with the magnetosphere. Measurement of B wave from up to 10 Hz, compressed data up to 4 kHz, cross-correlator for <E, B>. The STAFF instrument, located at the end of the 5 m boom, consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer (measurement up to 4 kHz), and a spectrum analyzer to perform the auto and cross correlations between electric and magnetic components on board each satellite. STAFF is one of the five complementary experiments which form the Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC). - The tetrahedral orbit configuration of the Cluster spacecraft permits the study of the frontiers between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. 53) 54)
Figure 18: Illustration of the STAFF package (image credit: ESA)
EFW (Electric Fields and Waves):
PI: M. André, IRF-U (Swedish Institute of Space Physics), Uppsala, Sweden. Objectives: measurement of electric field and density fluctuations, determination of electron density and temperature, study of nonlinear processes that result in acceleration of the plasma, study of large-scale phenomena of data from all four S/C. The instrument consists of double probes, mounted on two pairs of wire booms, each 100 m tip-to-tip. Measurement of E wave from 10 Hz, compressed data up to 100 kHz, sensitivity < 50 nV/m (Hz)1/2. EFW measurement modes: 55) 56)
- Instantaneous spin plane components of the electric field vector, over a dynamic range of 0.1 - 700 mV/m, and with variable time resolution down to 0.1 ms.
- Low energy plasma density, over a dynamic range at least 1 to 100 cm-3
- Electric field and density fluctuations in double layers of small amplitude, over dynamic ranges of 0.1 to 50 mV/m for the fields, and 1 - 50% for the relative density fluctuations, time resolution of 0.1 ms on some occasions
- Waves, ranging from electrostatic ion cyclotron emissions having amplitudes as large as 60 mV/m at frequencies as low as 50 mHz, to lower hybrid emissions at several hundred Hz and with amplitudes as small as a few µV/m.
- Time delays between signals from up to four different antenna elements on the same S/C, with a time resolution of 25 µs on some occasions.
- S/C potential
Figure 19: Illustration of the EFW experiment, 4 units and electronic boxes (image credit: ESA)
WHISPER (Waves of High Frequency and Sounder for Probing of Density by Relaxation):
PI: P. M. E. Décréau, LPCE (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement), Orléans, France. Objectives: accurate measurement of total plasma density within the range from 0.2 - 80 cm-3 (prime objective), continuous survey of one electric component of plasma waves in the frequency range from 2 - 80 kHz with an accuracy of about 160 Hz (secondary objective).
WHISPER employs the method of relaxation sounding (using parts of the EFW wire booms). The analysis of density variations is performed via active sounding of plasma resonances (a radar technique). Brief radio pulses, sent out from two 50 m long wire antennas, trigger oscillations or 'echoes', which are detected after a short delay. Their frequencies reveal the particle concentration in the medium. In addition, Whisper monitors natural wave activity in the frequency range (2 to 80 kHz) covered by the sounder.
Expected measurement results:
- identification of regions in space and mass transport
- spatial extension and drift speed
- density fluctuations
- wave mode identification
- coldest component of the electron density
Passive measurements of natural plasma waves up to 400 kHz. WHISPER is one of the five complementary experiments which form the Cluster WEC (Wave Experiment Consortium).
Figure 20: Illustration of WHISPER (image credit: ESA)
WBD (Wide Band Data):
PI: D. A. Gurnett, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. Objectives: Study of E-field wave form in the Earth's magnetosphere. A wideband receiver system measures electric and magnetic fields over a frequency range from 25 Hz to 577 kHz. The Cluster wideband receiver is similar to the instruments flown on ISEE-1 (International Sun Earth Explorer-1) and DE-1. WBD makes use of the EFW sensors (two electric dipole antennas, two search coil magnetometers); conversion frequencies: 0, 125 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz; frequency resolution: limited by FFT (75 Hz typical); time resolution: 10-20 ms (per FFT spectrum); The WBD measurements complement those of the other WEC instruments and also provide a unique new capability to perform very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. - The wideband technique involves transmitting band-limited waveform data to a ground station using a high-rate data link (262 kbit/s R/T or 131 kbit/s in burst mode). 57)
Table 5: Specification of the WBD instrument
Figure 21: Illustration of the WBD instrument (image credit: University of Iowa)
DWP (Digital Wave Processor):
PI: H. Alleyne, University of Sheffield, UK. Objectives: Correlation of wave/particle phenomena and wave/particle interactions. DWP is the on-board control system (multiprocessor unit based on the use of transputers with parallel processing and re-allocatable tasks to provide a high-reliability system.) of all WEC instruments performing data compaction and compression, event selection, particle/wave correlation, and control of WHISPER.
Figure 22: Illustration of the DWP instrument (image credit: University of Sheffield)
EDI (Electron Drift Instrument):
PI: G. Paschmann, MPE, Garching, Germany). EDI is a collaborative effort between MPE, UNH (University of New Hampshire), UIA (University of Iowa), IWF (Institut für Weltraumforschung), Graz, Austria, and UCSD (University of California, San Diego). Objectives: accurate and highly sensitive measurements of the electric field. EDI measures the drift of a weak beam of test electrons which for certain emission directions return to the S/C after one gyration (the drift is related to the electric field and to the gradient in the magnetic field). EDI consists of two emitter/detector assemblies, each with a full view (FOV of 360º). Emission and tracking of two electron beams. 58)
EDI fires two weak beams of electrons 10 km or more into the space around each spacecraft. When properly aimed, the electrons eventually return to receivers on the opposite side of the spacecraft. The returning beams are affected by the strength of the electric field in space and by the gradient in the ambient magnetic field. From beam firing directions and electron travel times, scientists can determine the strength of the electric field. As a by-product, the magnetic field strength is also measured.
Figure 23: Illustration of the EDI instrument (image credit: ESA)
CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment:
PI: H. Rème, CESR (Centre d'Etudes Spatial des Rayonnement), Toulouse, France. The CIS experiment is a collaborative effort of many international institutions, under the principal responsibility of CESR (Toulouse, France). Objectives: Study of the dynamics of magnetized plasma structures in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere (physics of the bow shock, the magnetopause boundary, the polar cusp, the geomagnetic tail, and the plasma sheet). CIS is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package on-board the four Cluster spacecraft capable of obtaining full 3-D ion distributions with good time resolution (one spacecraft spin) with mass per charge composition determination.
CIS consists of two instruments, CODIF and HIA to measure both the cold and hot ions from the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the magnetosphere (including the ionosphere) with sufficient angular, energy, and mass resolution. 59)
• CODIF (Composition and Distribution Functions) analyzer; energy range = 0.02 - 40 keV/q to measure the 3-D distribution of major ion species (H+, He2+, He+ , and O+). The instrument is a symmetrical hemispherical analyzer with RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer) and TOF (Time-of-Flight) electronics, FOV = 360º x 8º; split geometric factor.
• HIA (Hot Ion Analyzer) for high time resolution of the solar wind (energy range = 3 eV/q - 40 keV/q). The instrument is a symmetric quadri-spherical analyzer; FOV = 360º x 8º with high resolution. (≥ 2.8º).
Figure 24: The CODIF (left) and HIA instruments of CIS (image credit: MPE)
PEACE (Plasma Electron and Current Analyzer):
PI: A Fazakerley, MSSL (Mullard Space Science Laboratory), University College, London, UK. Objectives: Study of the 3-D velocity distribution of electrons in the vicinity of its host spacecraft. PEACE consists of two electron sensor devices. LEFA = Low Energy Electron Analyzer (energy range = 0 - 100 eV). The instrument is a spherical electrostatic analyzer with a FOV of 180º x 3.8º. HEFA (High Energy Electron Analyzer), energy range = 0.1 - 30 keV. The instrument is a troidal electrostatic analyzer with a FOV of 360º x 4.6º. 60)
Figure 25: The PEACE instrument (image credit: ESA)
RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors):
PI: P. Daly, MPS (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research), Lindau/Harz, Germany, formerly known as MPAe (Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie). Objectives: Study of suprathermal plasma distributions in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and 2 keV/n - 1500 keV for electrons and ions, respectively. 61)
RAPID provides complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. It is made up of two instruments, the IIMS and IES.
• IIMS (Imaging Ion Mass Spectrometer) for ion distribution. IIMS is a position-sensitive instrument with solid state detectors and TOF (Time-of-Flight) electronics. FOV= 3º x 180º
• IES (Imaging Electron Spectrometer) for measuring energetic electrons. IES has a position-sensitive solid state detector. FOV = 17.5º x 180º.
Figure 26: Illustration of the RAPID instrument (image credit: MPE)
ASPOC (Active Spacecraft Potential Control):
PI: K. Torkar, IWF (Institut für Weltraumforschung), Graz, Austria. Objective: Control of the spacecraft charge potential to insure effective, complete measurement of the ambient plasma distribution functions. The basic approach involves the active emission of positive charges from the S/C sufficient to balance the excess of charge accumulating on the satellite by the environment (photo emission of electrons drives the S/C potential positive relative to the plasma potential).
The method employed is field ionization with a Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS) of the “solid needle” type. LMIS uses Indium as charged material. The instrument consists of an electronics box and two cylindrical emitter modules with five needles each. The released ions cancel out the electrical charge that the satellite acquires. The ion current is adjusted by using measurements made by other onboard instruments, which record the spacecraft's electrical potential (EFW and PEACE). 62)
Figure 27: Illustration of ASPOC (image credit: ESA)
The ASPOC instrument consists of two cylindrical modules that both contain four ion emitters, as well as an electronics box with the microprocessor unit and current supply unit including the high voltage and heating supply for the ion emitters. The ion emitters are of the liquid metal type, and use Indium as charge carriers. A small needle gets wetted with Indium and heated over 157ºC, such that the Indium liquefies. The Indium at the tip of the accreting liquidity cone gets ionized when a potential of several kilovolts between the needle and an external electrode is applied and creates an ion beam.
The instrument uses a total of eight emitters, distributed over two modules with separate high voltage supplies. Only one emitter is operated at a time. The others serve as backup units and to extend the operability, as the life cycle of an emitter is limited by the Indium content of its reservoir. In total the Indium content suffices for an operational span of 32,000 hours at 10 µA ion current. The mass of the instrument is 1.9 kg, the power consumption is up to 2.7 Watt.
Operations of four S/C are provided by two centers: ESA/ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany for mission operations, and JSOC (Joint Science Operations Center), located at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK. The function of JSOC is the coordination of science operations. Its main task is to merge the input from the PI teams into a command schedule. In addition, JSOC monitors the health of the payload instruments and disseminates information of the mission.
RF communications: Science data are downlinked at a rate of 16.9 kbit/s real-time (105 kbit/s burst mode) or stored on one 2.25 Gbit solid-state recorder for replay (Note: the original two solid-state recorders were replaced by a single recorder of a new design). The S-band system operates at 2025-2110/2200-2290 MHz (up/down) at 10 W. The downlink data rate is variable from 2 to 262 kbit/s. Data from the four S/C is synchronized via a highly stable on-board clock. - The Villafranca ground station (Spain) of ESA is the prime station for all TT&C functions. Further support is provided by NASA's Deep Space Network (as well as other ground stations) during critical initial mission phases. About 1 GByte of science data per day is downlinked.
In the ground segment, the Cluster science data are available to the scientific community through CSDS (Cluster Science Data System). The CSDS consists of eight nationally funded and operated data centers. These are:
• Austrian Cluster Data Center, IWF, Graz (ASPOC)
• Chinese Cluster Data Center, Beijing (ASPOC)
• French Cluster Center, CNES, Toulouse (CIS, STAFF, WHISPER)
• German Cluster Data Center, MPE, Garching (EDI, RAPID)
• Scandinavian Data Center, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Stockholm (EFW)
• Hungarian Data Center, KFKI, Budapest
• UK Cluster Data Center, RAL, Didcot and QMW, London (DWP, FGM, PEACE)
• US Cluster Data Center, GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (WBD)
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The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates.