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INSTRUMENTS

Explore the many instruments the European Space Agency use to observe the Earth. ESA offer data from a wide range of optical, radar, atmospheric, altimetric and gravimetric instrumentation.

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  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    ACC (Swarm)

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    ASM

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    EFI

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    EFI Overview

    The SII sensors are directly installed on the radiator for heat rejection in order to limit dark current on the CCD

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    GPSR and LRR (Swarm)

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Photon/Optical Detectors

    Instrument - Photon/Optical Detectors

    Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    The OLI, on board Landsat 8, measures in the visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared.

  • Instrument - Photon/Optical Detectors

    Instrument - Photon/Optical Detectors

    Operational Land Imager (OLI) Overview

    Sensor Modes Landsat 8 operates in the EARTH OBSERVATION mode for nominal routine operations. The satellite acquires all day-lit descending land images between 57° North and 57° South, and on average 90% day-lit descending land images at higher latitudes; combined to approximately 725 images per day. Night, ocean, and day-lit ascending images are only acquired by special request. Almost all imaging is performed with both the OLI and TIRS instruments. The exception is for some night data, acquired for TIRS calibration and therefore with only the TIRS sensor (identified by a "T" in the product filename). If either the TIRS or OLI is not available, the available sensor that acquired is noted in the filename. Off-nadir imaging is currently only done at night for TIRS-calibration purposes when it does not impact Nadir day-time imaging; it must be approved by the Data Acquisition Manager, as must the special requests for night, ocean, and day-lit ascending imaging. Having said this, Landsat is not a tasking mission hence; off-nadir daytime acquisitions are mostly resisted since they cost nearly an entire orbit of nadir data. Related Links Learn more about the OLI instrument: OLI on the eoPortal OLI on USGS website

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    STR (Swarm)

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Thermal/Radiation Detectors

    Instrument - Thermal/Radiation Detectors

    Thermal Infra-Red Scanner (TIRS)

    TIRS on Landsat 8 is a thermal imager that supplements observations from the OLI instrument.

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    VFM

    find out more The Average Magnetic field and Polar current System model (AMPS) is a climatological model of polar ionospheric currents,...

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

    VFM Overview

    ... current that enables the sensor to detect minute deviations from the zero field. Noise on the instrument is only a few Picotesla while VFM provides a long-term stability in the sub Nanotesla range. The VFM is an analogue instrument and as such is subject to temporal changes due to radiation and the aging effect of electronics. The effects are only significant in the bias and linear scale parameters of the characterization; hence these parameters are estimated daily through a comparison of the VFM output with the Absolute Scalar Magnetometer output. Additionally