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  • Activity - Quality

    Activity - Quality

    Swarm - Spherical Elementary Current System

    The Swarm-SECS project investigates how the method of Spherical Elementary Current Systems can be applied to Swarm magnetic and electric...

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Swarm

    Swarm is dedicated to creating a highly detailed survey of the Earth’s geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution as well as the electric field in the atmosphere using a constellation of three identical satellites.

  • Tools - Other

    Tools - Other

    Swarm Aurora

    Swarm-Aurora was designed to facilitate and drive the use of Swarm in-situ measurements in auroral science.

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Publications

    ... current model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Swarm Objectives

    Swarm Objectives The objectives of the Swarm mission are to: study core dynamics, geodynamo processes and core-mantle interaction map lithospheric magnetisation and its geological interpretation determine the 3D electrical conductivity of the mantle investigate electric currents flowing in the magnetosphere and ionosphere Science By making key observations to untangle and model the many sources and strengths of Earth’s continuously changing magnetic field, the Swarm mission is set to advance many areas of Earth science. One of the very few ways of probing Earth’s liquid core is to measure the magnetic field it creates and how it changes over time. Since variations in the field directly reflect the flow of fluid in the outermost core, new information from Swarm will further our understanding of the physics and dynamics of Earth’s stormy heart. The constellation of Swarm satellites will produce, for the first time, global 3D images of electrical conductivity in the mantle. This will yield evidence of its chemical composition and temperature, which will complement seismic analysis and observations of gravity such as those from ESA’s GOCE mission. We can learn more about the history of the magnetic field and geological activity by studying magnetism in the lithosphere. For example, by analysing the magnetic imprints of the ocean floor, past core-field changes can be reconstructed. This also helps to investigate tectonic plate motion. Magnetic signals from the crust need to be determined from space in much higher resolution than currently available. By complementing the spatial scales observed by Swarm with magnetic surveys from aircraft, our understanding of Earth's crust will be improved. Magnetic sensors measure a tangle of the core field with other signals from magnetised rocks in the crust, electrical currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere and oceans, and currents inside Earth induced by external fields. The challenge is to separate the different sources of magnetism. GPS receivers, an accelerometer and an electric field instrument deliver supplementary information to study the interaction between Earth’s magnetic field and the solar wind. As well as the advanced technology the satellites carry, their carefully selected orbits are essential to the success of the mission. At the start of life in orbit, the three satellites are relatively close to each other. Two orbit almost side-by-side at the same altitude: initially at about 460 km, but descending to around 300 km over the life of the mission. The lower the satellites are, the more sensitively they can measure small magnetic features in the crust. The third satellite remains in a higher orbit, initially at 530 km, and at a slightly different inclination. The satellites’ orbits drift, resulting in the upper satellite crossing the path of the lower two at an angle of 90° in the third year of operations These drifting orbits mean that all the magnetic signals originating from Earth and those caused by the Sun are captured. The Sun generates typical day and night patterns in the ionosphere between the satellites and Earth. Magnetic storms resulting from solar activity also cause irregular disturbances in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Essentially, the constellation optimises the measurements of relevant phenomena. This helps to distinguish between the effects of different sources of magnetism. For example, global field models of the core and crust and conductivity maps of the mantle are needed to study the interior of Earth. These can only be obtained from a combination of selected observations from all three satellites over time. For studies of the upper atmosphere, each satellite provides information such as ion speed, direction and temperature. Density and winds around each satellite can be derived by using data from the different instruments. Combining observations of the lower pair of satellites will lead to a new way of quantifying the currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the magnetosphere to the high-latitude ionosphere. It is therefore essential to have the constellation of satellites to offer new opportunities for science. A unique mixture of local and global products will allow data users to address some of today’s open scientific questions related to global change. Swarm will also benefit a broad range of applications in Earth sciences and space weather. See the highest resolution map of Earth's lithospheric magnetic field from space. This was produced from three years of Swarm data in combination with historical data from DLR's CHAMP mission:

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Abstracts

    P, "Derivation of the full current density vector in the Earth's ionosphere low- and mid-latitude F region using ESA's Swarm satell...

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Swarm Data

    The access and use of Swarm products are regulated by ESA's Data Policy and subject to the acceptance of the specific Terms and Conditions. In accordance with ESA Earth Observation Data Policy, all Swarm Level 1b and Level 2 products are freely accessible to all users via anonymous access. They can be downloaded : via any HTTP browser at http://swarm-diss.eo.esa.int directly via an ftp client at ftp://swarm-diss.eo.esa.int The top-level structure is divided into the 'Level1b', 'Level2daily', and 'L2longterm' and 'Advanced' directories. Within the 'Level1b' and 'Level2daily' directories, the structure presents first the 'Latest baselines' and 'Entire_mission_data' folders, then a Simplified datatype list, and finally, the satellite ID, if applicable. Please also notice that for each L1/L2 directory there will be a .txt file with the list of products available at that time in the corresponding directory tree. You can find all of the details in the document 'Swarm PDGS Data Access User Manual', and it is key to note that: LATEST BASELINES FOLDER: the user will find all the interoperable products generated in a consistent way with the application of all significant data quality improvements, but not necessarily covering the entire mission. ENTIRE MISSION DATA FOLDER: the users will find the full data coverage of the entire mission, regardless of any consideration of interoperability among the same product type. In other words, the data might have been produced with strategies or knowledge that does not make the products necessarily interoperable for certain types of science. This information can still be captured by looking at the Product Baseline number. N.B. This strategy ensures that users do not mix old data with new products that have been improved in quality by significant upgrades. It might occur that not all of the old data is immediately regenerated or reprocessed into the 'Latest_baselines' Folder. Therefore if the user does not find the improved product in the 'Latest_baselines' Folder but s/he is nonetheless interested in accessing the data without the significant data quality improvements, s/he can find them in the 'Entire_mission_data' Folder. PRODUCT BASELINE: is a number associated with a specific product type and satellite. The Product Baseline is identified by the first two of the four digits placed at the end of the file name, i.e. the first two digits of the File_Version field represent the Product Baseline, while the last two represent an incremental File Counter. Example: SW_OPER_STRCATT_1B_20140218T000000_20140218T235959_0301_MDR_SAT_AT.cdf Where 03 is the Product Baseline number, while 01 is only an incremental File Counter. The Product Baseline is increased when upgrades lead to significant improvements in the data quality of the related products. This subsequently leads to a reprocessing of the affected product types. Products with an older File Counter but same Product Baseline are erased.

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Swarm Overview

    The following is the current status and future status of the constellation: In 2018: B was perpendicular to the lower A/C pair In 2021:...

  • Mission - Earth Explorers

    Mission - Earth Explorers

    Product Data Handbook

    Purpose of the Swarm Product Data Handbook The Swarm Product Data Handbook provides a detailed description of the Level 1b and Level 2 products. These products include Swarm magnetic field models, ionospheric and thermospheric products, and Precise Orbit Solutions including supporting information. The product handbook is intended to support the use of the products for further processing or application. The Swarm Level 1b data products are the corrected and formatted output from each of the three Swarm satellites. By a complex assimilation of these individual satellite measurements into one set of products for the satellite constellation, the Level 2 Processor ensures a very significant improvement of the quality of the final scientific data products. The definition and justification of Level 1b data is documented in [AD-5], Level 2 data and auxiliary products are documented in [AD-1] and [AD-2] of the ESA Swarm study under ESA contract no. 20969/07/NL/JA. Download the following documents to learn more about the Swarm mission and its products. Mission: Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission (requires Flash) Level 1B Product Descriptions: Download Swarm Level 1B Processor Algorithms Download Swarm Level 1B Plasma Processor Algorithm Download Swarm Level 1B Product Definition Download Swarm Level 1B CDF Data Format Download Swarm Preliminary Plasma Dataset User Note Download Swarm Orbit Counter Specifications - ORBCNT Level 2 Product Descriptions: Download Swarm Level 2 Product Specification Download Swarm Level 2 FAC-single product description Download Swarm Level 2 FAC-dual product description Download Swarm Level 2 IBI product description Download Swarm Level 2 TEC Product Description Download Swarm Level 2 EEF Product Description Technical Notes: Download In-flight Scalar Calibration and Characterisation of the Swarm Magnetometry Package Download Mapping of Swarm Magnetic Field Intensity from Alpha to Charlie Download Release Note on Swarm EFI-TII Cross-track flow dataset Download Swarm Satellite thermo-optical properties and external geometry Applicable documents [AD-1] PDD - Product Definition Document (SWL2_SPT_PDD) [AD-2] LPM - List and Description of Auxiliary Data and Prior Models Needed (SWL2-SPT-LPM) [AD-3] ADD - Architecture Design Document (SWL2_SPT_ADD) [AD-4] SWRD - Software Requirement Document (SWL2_SPT_SWRD) [AD-5] Swarm Level 1b Product Definition (SW-RS-DSC-SY-0007) [AD-6] Swarm ASM level 1B algorithms, Doc. No: AUT/ALGO1B/001, LETI, France [AD-7] Swarm Level 1b Processor Algorithms Doc. No: SW-RS-DSC-SY-0002 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark [AD-8] Vector Field Magnetometer for the Swarm Project, Users Manual, Doc. No: SW-MA-DTU-VF-5001 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark [AD-9] Swarm CEFI-LP Level 1b Algorithms, Doc. No: SW-TN-IRF-EF-003, Swedish Institute of Space Physics [AD-10] Swarm CEFI Level 1b Processor Definition, Doc. No: SW-TN-UOC-EF-003, University of Calgary, Canada [AD-11] Accelerometer Instrument Level 1b Algorithms Definition Doc. No: SW-DF-VZL-AC-0001 VZLU, Czech Republic [AD-12] Earth Explorer File Format Standards Doc. No: PE-TN-ESA-GS-0001 ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands [AD-13] Tailoring of File Format Standards to Swarm Mission Doc. No: SW-TN-ESA-GS-0074 ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands [AD-14] Swarm Level 0 Product Format, Doc. No: SWARM-GSEG-EOPG-05-001, ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands [AD-15] Swarm Level 2 Processing System, Product specification for L2 Products and Auxiliary Products, Doc. No: SW-DS-DTU-GS-0001 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark [AD-16] L2 CAT-2 Processors Auxiliary Data Providers to Swarm PDGS Interface Control Document, Doc ID: SWAM-GSEG-EOPG-IC-011-0004 [AD-17] Statement of work (SoW) for the Development of the Swarm Level 2 Algorithms and Associated Level 2 Processing Facility, Doc. No: SW-SW-ESA-GS-0179 [AD-18] Preparation of the Swarm Level 2 Data Processing, Final Report Doc. No: SWL2-SPT-FR [AD-19] Swarm PDS-IPF ICD Generic Interface Guidelines, Doc. No: SW-ID-ESA-GS-0001 ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Reference documents [RD-1] Swarm Level 1b Processor Characterisation and Calibration Data Base Doc. No: SW-TN-DSC-SY-0005 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark [RD-2] Romans, L. J., Optimal combination of quaternions from multiple star cameras Note: The definition of quaternions used in this description differs from the one used here. Our definition has the real part as fourth component, Romans uses a definition with the real part as first component. http://www.iers.org/ [RD-3] Swarm Level 0 Products, doc. no: SW.IF.EAD.GS.00017, EADS Astrium, Friedrichshafen, Germany [RD-4] RINEX: The Receiver Independent Exchange Format Version 3.00, http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/rinex300.pdf by Werner Gurtner, Astronomical Institute, University of Bern Dated: 2006-12-19 [RD-5] The Extended Standard Product 3 Orbit Format (SP3-c), http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sp3c.txt by Steve Hilla, National Geodetic Survey, NOAA, USA Dated: 12 February 2007 [RD-6] Olsen, N., T. J. Sabaka, and F. Lowes: New Parameterization of External and Induced Fields in Geomagnetic Field Modeling, and a Candidate Model for IGRF 2005, Earth, Planets and Space, 57, 1141-1149, 2005 [RD-7] Finlay, C. C. et al., International Geomagnetic Reference Field - the eleventh generation, Geophys. J. Int., 183, 1216-1230, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04804.x., 2010 [RD-8] Olsen, N., H. Lühr, T. J. Sabaka, M. Mandea, M. Rother, L. Tøffner-Clausen and S. Choi, CHAOS-a model of the Earth's magnetic field derived from CHAMP, Ørsted, and SAC-C magnetic satellite data, Geophys. J. Int., 166, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02959.x, 2006 [RD-9] http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/CM/ [RD-10] Wardinski, I., and R. Holme (2006), A time-dependent model of the Earth's magnetic field and its secular variation for the period 1980–2000, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B12101, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004401 BibTex [RD-11] Lesur, V., I. Wardinski, M. Rother, and M. Mandea, GRIMM - The GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model based on vector satellite and observatory data, Geophys. J. Int., doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03724.x, 2008 [RD-12] Maus, S., M. Rother, C. Stolle, W. Mai, S. Choi, H. Lühr, D. Cooke, and C. Roth, Third generation of the Potsdam Magnetic Model of the Earth (POMME), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q07008, doi:10.1029/2006GC001269, 2006 [RD-13] Maus, S., H. Lühr, M. Rother, K. Hemant, G. Balasis, P. Ritter, and C. Stolle, Fifth-generation lithospheric magnetic field model from CHAMP satellite measurements, Geochem. Geophys Geosyst., 8, Q05013, doi:10.1029/2006GC00152, 2007 [RD-14] Kuvshinov, A., and N. Olsen, A global model of mantle conductivity derived from 5 years of CHAMP, Ørsted, and SAC-C magnetic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18301, doi:10.1029/2006GL027083.3, 2006 [RD-15] Maus, S., Rother, M., Hemant, K., Stolle, C., Lühr, H., Kuvshinov, A., and Olsen, N., Earth's lithospheric magnetic field determined to spherical harmonic degree 90 from CHAMP satellite measurements, Geophys. J. Int., 164, 319-330, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02833.x, 2006 [RD-16] Manoj C., A. Kuvshinov, S. Maus and H. Lühr, Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals, Earth, Planets and Space, 58, 429-437, 2006 [RD-17] Lühr, H.; Maus, S.: Solar cycle dependence of quiet-time magnetospheric currents and a model of their near-Earth magnetic fields. Earth Planets and Space, 62 (No. 10), 843-848, 2010 [RD-18] Olsen, N., Sabaka, T. J. and Gaya-Pique, L. R., Study of an Improved Comprehensive Magnetic Field Inversion Analysis for Swarm. Final report to ESA study with contract number 19690/06/NL/CB [RD-19] Swarm GPSR TE-12 Instrument L1b Algorithms Definition Doc. No: SW-TN-SES-GP-0018 Saab Space AB, Sweden [RD-20] Macmillan S and Olsen N (2013), "Observatory data and the Swarm mission", Earth, Planets and Space. Vol. 65(11), pp. 1355-1362. DOI: 10.5047/eps.2013.07.011 BibTex Acronyms and abbreviations Download the list of acronyms and abbreviations related to the Swarm mission.