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INSTRUMENTS

Explore the many instruments the European Space Agency use to observe the Earth. ESA offer data from a wide range of optical, radar, atmospheric, altimetric and gravimetric instrumentation.

  • Instrument - Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers

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    ATSR

    The Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) on board ERS-1 and ERS-2 mission consisted of two instruments, an Infra-Red Radiometer and a Microwave Sounder.

  • Instrument - Positioning/Navigation

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    PRARE

    The Precise Range And Range-Rate Equipment (PRARE) was a microwave tracking system on board the ERS-1 and ERS-2 missions.

  • Instrument - Laser Ranging

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    LRR ERS

    The Laser Retro-Reflector (LRR), on board the ERS-1 and ERS-2 missions, was an optical device for accurate satellite tracking from the ground to support instrument data evaluation.

  • Instrument - Scatterometers

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    SAR (ERS)

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument aboard ERS-1 and ERS-2 was capable of high precision change detection of surface heights.

  • Instrument - Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers

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    MWR (ERS)

    The microwave radiometer (MWR) instrument on board the ERS-1 and ERS-2 missions provided measurements of the integrated atmospheric water vapour column and cloud liquid water content.

  • Instrument - Radar Altimeters

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    STR (Swarm)

    The Swarm Star Trackers retrieve information on the precise satellite orientation and attitude.

  • Instrument - Accelerometers

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    ACC (Swarm)

    The Accelerometer measures the Swarm satellite’s non-gravitational acceleration in its respective orbit.

  • Instrument - GPS

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    GPSR and LRR (Swarm)

    Each Swarm satellite is equipped with a Laser Retro-Reflector for external calibration and validation of the on-board GPS receiver.

  • Instrument - Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers

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    Thermal Infra-Red Sensor (TIRS)

    TIRS on Landsat-8 mission is a thermal imager that supplements observations from the OLI (Operational Land Imager) instrument.

  • Instrument - MAGNETOMETERS

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    VFM

    The Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) is the primary instrument carried aboard the Swarm satellites.

  • Instrument - MAGNETOMETERS

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    ASM

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer on the Swarm satellites measures the strength of the magnetic field.

  • Instrument - Magnetic Field/Electric Field Instruments

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    EFI

    The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) aboard the Swarm satellites is the first 3D ionospheric imager in space.

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