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INSTRUMENTS

Explore the many instruments the European Space Agency use to observe the Earth. ESA offer data from a wide range of optical, radar, atmospheric, altimetric and gravimetric instrumentation.

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Thematic Mapper (TM)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) was a multispectral scanning radiometer on Landsat 4 and Landsat 5.

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Return-Beam Vidicon (RBV)

The Return-Beam Vidicon (RBV) instrument was flown on board the Landsat 1 to 3 satellites.

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Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS)

The Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instrument was carried aboard the Landsat 1 to 5 satellites.

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Vegetation (VGT)

The main PROBA-V payload is the Vegetation sensor (VGT): a multispectral pushbroom spectrometer.

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LRR (Envisat)

The LRR instrument aboard Envisat was used to accurately determine the orbital height of the satellite.

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STR (Swarm)

The Swarm Star Trackers retrieve information on the precise satellite orientation and attitude.

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ACC (Swarm)

The Accelerometer measures the Swarm satellite’s non-gravitational acceleration in its respective orbit.

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GPSR and LRR (Swarm)

Each Swarm satellite is equipped with a Laser Retroreflector for external calibration and validation of the on-board GPS receiver.

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DORIS

DORIS was used to determine the precise location of Envisat in orbit.

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PRARE (ERS-2)

Precise Range And Range-Rate Equipment (PRARE) was a microwave tracking system for the measurement of satellite to ground range and range rate.