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Radar Course III
37. Bragg scattering
43. Texture and image analysis
42. Temporal averaging
12. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
34. Space, time and processing constraints
15. Slant range / ground range
8. Side-looking radars
19. Shadow
10. Real Aperture Radar: Range resolution
11. Real Aperture Radar: Azimuth resolution
9. Real Aperture Radar (RAR)
7. Radar principles
38. Radar image interpretation
35. The radar equation
36. Parameters affecting radar backscatter
16. Optical vs. microwave image geometry
25. Method
18. Layover
32. Landers Earthquake in South California
23. Introduction
27. Interferogramme of Naples (Italy)
29. Interferogramme and DEM of Gennargentu (Italy)
2. Independence of clouds coverage
40. Image interpretation: Speckle
41. Image interpretation: Speckle filters
39. Image interpretation: Tone
20. Geometric effects for image interpretation
22. Geocoding: Geometry
17. Foreshortening
26. First ERS-1/ERS-2 tandem interferogramme
6. Electromagnetic spectrum
30. Differential interferometry
45. Data reduction: 16 to 8 bit, blockaverage vs incrementing
4. Control of imaging geometry
3. Control of emitted electromagnetic radiation
24. Concept
28. Coherence image of Bonn area (Germany)
44. Classification of ERS-1 SAR images with Neural Networks
5. Access to different parameters compared to optical systems
13. SAR processing
33. SAR interferometric products
21. SAR image geocoding
14. ERS SAR geometric configuration
31. The Bonn experiment
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Real Aperture Radar (RAR)

A narrow beam of energy is directed perpendicularly to the flight path of the carrier platform (aircraft or spacecraft). A pulse of energy is transmitted from the radar antenna, and the relative intensity of the reflections is used to produce an image of a narrow strip of terrain.
Reflections from larger ranges arrive back at the radar after proportionately larger time, which becomes the range direction in the image. When the next pulse is transmitted, the radar will have moved forward a small distance and a slightly different strip of terrain will be imaged.

These sequential strips of terrain will then be recorded side by side to build up the azimuth direction. The image consists of the two dimensional data array.
In this figure, the strip of terrain to be imaged is from point A to point B. Point A being nearest to the nadir point is said to lie at near range and point B, being furthest, is said to lie at far range.

The distance between A and B defines the swath width. The distance between any point within the swath and the radar is called its slant range.
Ground range for any point within the swath is its distance from the nadir point (point on the ground directly underneath the radar).

Keywords: ESA European Space Agency - Agence spatiale europeenne, observation de la terre, earth observation, satellite remote sensing, teledetection, geophysique, altimetrie, radar, chimique atmospherique, geophysics, altimetry, radar, atmospheric chemistry